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Table 3 The ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions (Ka) per site and synonymous substitutions (Ks) per site in Pvpm4 gene

From: Polymorphisms in Pvkelch12 and gene amplification of Pvplasmepsin4 in Plasmodium vivax from Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia

Frequence of Pfplasmepsin2 CNV Treatment guidelines for P. falciparum Location Year Total Ka Ks Ka/Ksa
Pfplasmepsin2 (< 5%) Artesunate-Mefloquine Thailand (Tak) 2007–2012 107 2.04 × 10−3 8.22 × 10−3 0.2488
DHA-PPQ Thailand (Ubon Ratchathani) 2012–2015 56 2.04 × 10−3 4.12 × 10−3 0.4968
Artemether–lumefantrine Lao PDR (Champasak) 2013–2014 57 2.04 × 10−3 4.10 × 10−3 0.4985
Pfplasmepsin2 (5–30%) DHA-PPQ Cambodia (Pailin) 2013–2014 85 2.04 × 10−3 0 Error
  1. aKa/Ks ratios of Pvpm4 are grouped by presumed DHA-PPQ drug pressure based on Pfplasmepsin2 amplification prevalence in P. falciparum in the same areas [33, 34]. Ka and Ks were estimated by using approximate method, Jukes-Cantor (JC) and Kimuras-two parameter models: https://kakscalculator.herokuapp.com/calculate.action [21]