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Table 3 Distribution (number and proportion) of genotypes (kelch13 mutations, Pfmdr1 and Pfpm2 gene copy numbers) detected in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in four sites located in Southeast Asia in 2014–2015

From: African isolates show a high proportion of multiple copies of the Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin-2 gene, a piperaquine resistance marker

Locus Allele/haplotype Site
Gai Lai Binh Phuoc Quang Tri Khanh Hao
N % N % N % N %
kelch 13 ART
 C580Y 3 23.1 16 61.5 0   6 21.4
 C580Y + P553L 0   0   0   2 7.1
 I543T 0   1 3.8 0   0  
 P553L 4 30.8 2 7.7 0   11 39.3
 V568G 1 7.7 0   0   0  
OTH C469P 1 7.7 0   0   0  
WT 4 30.8 7 26.9 1 100 9 32.1
Pfpm2 Single copy 15 83.3 20 71.4 1 100 32 100
Multiple copies 3 16.7 8 28.6 0   0  
Pfmdr1 Single copy 16 88.9 27 96.4 1 100 30 93.8
Multiple copies 2 11.1 1 3.6 0   2 6.3
Pfpm2/Pfmdr1 Single copy/single copy 14 77.8 19 67.9 1 100 30 93.8
Single copy/multiple copies 1 5.6 1 3.6 0   2 6.3
Multiple copies/single copy 2 11.1 8 28.6 0   0  
Multiple copies/multiple copies 1 5.6 0   0   0  
kelch 13/Pfpm2/Pfmdr1 ART
 Single copy/single copy 7 53.8 10 41.7 0   18 64.3
 Single copy/multiple copies 0   1 4.2 0   1 3.6
 Multiple copies/single copy 0   7 29.2 0   0  
 Multiple copies/multiple copies 1 7.7 0 0   0  
OTH
 Single copy/single copy   0   0   0  
 Single copy/multiple copies 1 7.7 0   0   0  
 Multiple copies/single copy   0   0   0  
 Multiple copies/multiple copies   0   0   0  
WT
 Single copy/single copy 2 15.4 6 25 1 100 8 28.6
 Single copy/multiple copies   0   0   1 3.6
 Multiple copies/single copy 2 15.4 0   0   0  
 Multiple copies/multiple copies   0   0   0  
  1. ART: validated or candidate kelch 13 mutations; WT: kelch 13 Wild type, OTH: kelch 13 mutations with unknown association with artemisinin resistance
  2. Italic font denotes the allele or haplotype associate with drug resistance