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Table 4 Distribution (number and proportion) of genotypes (kelch13 mutations, Pfmdr1 and Pfpm2 gene copy numbers) detected in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in nine sites located in Africa in 2014–2015

From: African isolates show a high proportion of multiple copies of the Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin-2 gene, a piperaquine resistance marker

Locus Allele/haplotype Site
BEN BF DRC GAB MOZ UGA
N % N % N % N % N % N %
kelch 13 ART 0   0   0   0   0   0  
OTH
 A578S 0   1 0.875 0   2 2.4 1 7.1 3 2.6
 Y541F 0   1 0.875 0   0   0   0  
 M562T 0   1 0.875 0   0   0   0  
 A626V 0   1 0.875 0   0   0   0  
WT 1 100 110 96.5 4 100 81 97.6 13 92.9 113 97.4
Pfpm2 Single copy 0   73 69.5 1 50 63 88.7 7 87.5 74 66.1
Multiple copies 0   32 30.5 1 50 8 11.3 1 12.5 38 33.9
Pfmdr1 Single copy 0   92 87.6 1 50 55 76.4 10 83.3 82 72.6
Multiple copies 0   13 12.4 1 50 17 23.6 2 16.7 31 27.4
Pfpm2/Pfmdr1 Single copy/single copy 0   70 66.7 1 50 51 71.8 7 87.5 60 53.6
Single copy/multiple copies 0   3 2.9 0   12 16.9 0   14 12.5
Multiple copies/single copy 0   22 20.9 0   3 4.3 1 12.5 21 18.8
Multiple copies/multiple copies 0   10 9.4 1 50 5 7 0   17 15.1
kelch 13/Pfpm2/Pfmdr1 ART
 Single copy/single copy 0   0   0   0   0    
 Single copy/multiple copies 0   0   0   0   0    
 Multiple copies/single copy 0   0   0   0   0    
 Multiple copies/multiple copies 0   0   0   0   0    
OTH
 Single copy/single copy 0   0   0   0   1 12.5 2 1.9
 Single copy/multiple copies 0   1 1 0   1 1.5 0   1 0.9
 Multiple copies/single copy 0   2 1.9 0   0   0    
 Multiple copies/multiple copies 0   0   0   0   0    
WT
 Single copy/single copy 0   69 66.3 1 50 51 71.8 6 75 56 52.3
 Single copy/multiple copies 0   3 2.9 0   11 15.5 0   13 12.1
 Multiple copies/single copy 0   20 19.2 0   3 4.2 1 12.5 19 17.8
 Multiple copies/multiple copies 0   9 8.7 1 50 5 7 0   16 15
  1. Countries: BEN: Benin; BF: Burkina Faso; DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo; GAB: Gabon; MOZ: Mozambique; UGA: Uganda. ART: validated or candidate kelch13 mutations; WT: kelch 13 Wild type, OTH: kelch13 mutations with unknown association with artemisinin resistance
  2. Italic font denotes the allele or haplotype associate with drug resistance