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Table 2 Risk factor analysis of multiple episodes of malaria in western Thailand

From: Epidemiological profiles of recurrent malaria episodes in an endemic area along the Thailand-Myanmar border: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics

Total

Not infected

Single episode

Multiple episodes

Odds ratioa (95% CI)

N

n (%)

n (%)

n (%)

Sex

 Female

3908

3739 (95.7)

145 (3.7)

24 (0.6)

1

 Male

3904

3663 (93.8)

198 (5.1)

43 (1.1)

1.46 (1.19–1.78)

Age groups

 < 5

1755

1657 (94.4)

82 (4.7)

16 (0.9)

1

 6–10

1051

953 (90.7)

80 (7.6)

18 (1.7)

1.74 (1.30–2.33)

 11–20

1705

1610 (94.4)

79 (4.7)

16 (0.9)

1.00 (0.75–1.33)

 21–60

2963

2849 (96.1)

97 (3.3)

17 (0.6)

0.68 (0.51–0.89)

 > 60

328

323 (98.5)

5 (1.5)

0 (0.0)

0.26 (0.11–0.65)

Ethnic groups

 Thai

1083

1034 (95.5)

47 (4.3)

2 (0.2)

1

 Karen

5703

5355 (93.9)

284 (5.0)

64 (1.1)

1.38 (1.02–1.88)

 Other

51

50 (98.0)

1 (2.0)

0 (0.0)

0.42 (0.06–3.13)

Education attainment

 Illiterate

4280

4035 (94.3)

205 (4.8)

40 (0.9)

1

 Primary

1700

1580 (92.9)

98 (5.8)

22 (1.3)

1.25 (0.99–1.57)

 Secondary

824

793 (96.2)

28 (3.4)

3 (0.4)

0.64 (0.44–0.94)

 College

19

18 (94.7)

0 (0.0)

1 (5.3)

0.96 (0.13–7.23)

Occupational risk

 Low risk work

742

728 (98.1)

13 (1.8)

1 (0.1)

1

 Child/student

3632

3376 (92.9)

210 (5.8)

46 (1.3)

3.95 (2.30–6.81)

 Factory laborers

393

367 (93.4)

21 (5.3)

5 (1.3)

3.70 (1.91–7.16)

 Plantation workers

1187

1143 (96.3)

38 (3.2)

6 (0.5)

2.00 (1.09–3.68)

 High risk work

55

53 (96.4)

2 (3.6)

0 (0.0)

1.95 (0.43–8.82)

 Unspecified

820

765 (93.2)

47 (5.8)

8 (1.0)

3.74 (2.06–6.78)

Having other infected person in the same HHb

 No

333

290 (87.1)

43 (12.9)

1

 Yes

77

53 (66.8)

24 (31.2)

3.05 (1.71–5.45)

  1. aOdds ratios were based on proportional ordinal logistic model
  2. bOdds ratio was based on binary logistic model (comparing only infected cases)