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Table 2 Risk factor analysis of multiple episodes of malaria in western Thailand

From: Epidemiological profiles of recurrent malaria episodes in an endemic area along the Thailand-Myanmar border: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Total Not infected Single episode Multiple episodes Odds ratioa (95% CI)
N n (%) n (%) n (%)
Sex
 Female 3908 3739 (95.7) 145 (3.7) 24 (0.6) 1
 Male 3904 3663 (93.8) 198 (5.1) 43 (1.1) 1.46 (1.19–1.78)
Age groups
 < 5 1755 1657 (94.4) 82 (4.7) 16 (0.9) 1
 6–10 1051 953 (90.7) 80 (7.6) 18 (1.7) 1.74 (1.30–2.33)
 11–20 1705 1610 (94.4) 79 (4.7) 16 (0.9) 1.00 (0.75–1.33)
 21–60 2963 2849 (96.1) 97 (3.3) 17 (0.6) 0.68 (0.51–0.89)
 > 60 328 323 (98.5) 5 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0.26 (0.11–0.65)
Ethnic groups
 Thai 1083 1034 (95.5) 47 (4.3) 2 (0.2) 1
 Karen 5703 5355 (93.9) 284 (5.0) 64 (1.1) 1.38 (1.02–1.88)
 Other 51 50 (98.0) 1 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 0.42 (0.06–3.13)
Education attainment
 Illiterate 4280 4035 (94.3) 205 (4.8) 40 (0.9) 1
 Primary 1700 1580 (92.9) 98 (5.8) 22 (1.3) 1.25 (0.99–1.57)
 Secondary 824 793 (96.2) 28 (3.4) 3 (0.4) 0.64 (0.44–0.94)
 College 19 18 (94.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (5.3) 0.96 (0.13–7.23)
Occupational risk
 Low risk work 742 728 (98.1) 13 (1.8) 1 (0.1) 1
 Child/student 3632 3376 (92.9) 210 (5.8) 46 (1.3) 3.95 (2.30–6.81)
 Factory laborers 393 367 (93.4) 21 (5.3) 5 (1.3) 3.70 (1.91–7.16)
 Plantation workers 1187 1143 (96.3) 38 (3.2) 6 (0.5) 2.00 (1.09–3.68)
 High risk work 55 53 (96.4) 2 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 1.95 (0.43–8.82)
 Unspecified 820 765 (93.2) 47 (5.8) 8 (1.0) 3.74 (2.06–6.78)
Having other infected person in the same HHb
 No 333 290 (87.1) 43 (12.9) 1
 Yes 77 53 (66.8) 24 (31.2) 3.05 (1.71–5.45)
  1. aOdds ratios were based on proportional ordinal logistic model
  2. bOdds ratio was based on binary logistic model (comparing only infected cases)