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Table 2 Factors associated with microscopic parasitaemia at enrolment

From: Household and maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in a highly endemic area of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Variable Categories Parasitaemia n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
RR (95% CI) p-value aRRa (95% CI) p-value
Wealth index categories Least poor 98 (40.2) Reference Reference
Middle 133 (52.8) 1.31 (1.08–1.59) 0.005 1.15 (0.95–1.39) 0.15
Poorest 154 (59.9) 1.49 (1.24–1.79) < 0.001 1.29 (1.07–1.55) 0.008
Type of house constructionb Modern 61 (35.5) Reference Reference
Traditional 324 (55.8) 1.57 (1.27–1.95) < 0.001 1.41 (1.14–1.74) 0.002
Whether airbricks were present Present 79 (37.8) Reference Reference
Not present 306 (56.3) 1.49 (1.23–1.80) < 0.001 1.09 (0.86–1.39) 0.48
Number of windows present ≥ 2 windows 65 (45.1) Reference Reference
1 window 224 (50.1) 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 0.31 0.97 (0.79–1.18) 0.73
No windows 96 (59.3) 1.31 (1.05–1.64) 0.02 1.06 (0.84–1.32) 0.63
Level of education O level or beyond 86 (46.2) Reference Reference
None or primary 299 (52.7) 1.14 (0.96–1.36) 0.14 1.13 (0.95–1.34) 0.17
Bed net ownership before enrolment LLIN 285 (49.2) Reference Reference
Untreated 62 (56.9) 1.16 (0.96–1.39) 0.12 1.07 (0.90–1.28) 0.45
No bed net 38 (58.5) 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 0.13 1.03 (0.83–1.28) 0.77
Categories of gravidity Multigravida 145 (38.0) Reference Reference
Secundigravida 108 (57.8) 1.52 (1.27–1.82) < 0.001 1.53 (1.28–1.82) < 0.001
Primigravida 132 (71.7) 1.89 (1.62–2.21) < 0.001 1.84 (1.58–2.16) < 0.001
  1. RR risk ratio
  2. aAdjusted for wealth index, type of house construction, level of education, bed net ownership before enrolment and categories of gravidity
  3. bModern houses defined as those with plaster or cement walls, metal or wooden roof, and closed eaves; all other houses defined as traditional