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Table 2 Factors associated with microscopic parasitaemia at enrolment

From: Household and maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in a highly endemic area of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Variable

Categories

Parasitaemia n (%)

Univariate analysis

Multivariate analysis

RR (95% CI)

p-value

aRRa (95% CI)

p-value

Wealth index categories

Least poor

98 (40.2)

Reference

Reference

Middle

133 (52.8)

1.31 (1.08–1.59)

0.005

1.15 (0.95–1.39)

0.15

Poorest

154 (59.9)

1.49 (1.24–1.79)

< 0.001

1.29 (1.07–1.55)

0.008

Type of house constructionb

Modern

61 (35.5)

Reference

Reference

Traditional

324 (55.8)

1.57 (1.27–1.95)

< 0.001

1.41 (1.14–1.74)

0.002

Whether airbricks were present

Present

79 (37.8)

Reference

Reference

Not present

306 (56.3)

1.49 (1.23–1.80)

< 0.001

1.09 (0.86–1.39)

0.48

Number of windows present

≥ 2 windows

65 (45.1)

Reference

Reference

1 window

224 (50.1)

1.11 (0.91–1.36)

0.31

0.97 (0.79–1.18)

0.73

No windows

96 (59.3)

1.31 (1.05–1.64)

0.02

1.06 (0.84–1.32)

0.63

Level of education

O level or beyond

86 (46.2)

Reference

Reference

None or primary

299 (52.7)

1.14 (0.96–1.36)

0.14

1.13 (0.95–1.34)

0.17

Bed net ownership before enrolment

LLIN

285 (49.2)

Reference

Reference

Untreated

62 (56.9)

1.16 (0.96–1.39)

0.12

1.07 (0.90–1.28)

0.45

No bed net

38 (58.5)

1.19 (0.95–1.48)

0.13

1.03 (0.83–1.28)

0.77

Categories of gravidity

Multigravida

145 (38.0)

Reference

Reference

Secundigravida

108 (57.8)

1.52 (1.27–1.82)

< 0.001

1.53 (1.28–1.82)

< 0.001

Primigravida

132 (71.7)

1.89 (1.62–2.21)

< 0.001

1.84 (1.58–2.16)

< 0.001

  1. RR risk ratio
  2. aAdjusted for wealth index, type of house construction, level of education, bed net ownership before enrolment and categories of gravidity
  3. bModern houses defined as those with plaster or cement walls, metal or wooden roof, and closed eaves; all other houses defined as traditional