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Table 4 Factors associated with microscopic parasitaemia during pregnancy following initiation of IPTp

From: Household and maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in a highly endemic area of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Variable

Categories

Parasitaemiaa n (%)

Univariate analysis

Multivariate analysis

RR (95% CI)

p-value

aRRb (95% CI)

p-value

Wealth index categories

Least poor

135 (12.1)

Reference

Reference

Middle

206 (17.8)

1.37 (1.01–1.87)

0.04

1.34 (1.06–1.70)

0.02

Poorest

186 (16.0)

1.27 (0.93–1.73)

0.13

1.25 (0.97–1.62)

0.08

Type of house constructionc

Modern

94 (12.1)

Reference

Reference

Traditional

433 (16.3)

1.36 (0.99–1.85)

0.06

1.18 (0.91–1.53)

0.22

Whether airbricks were present

Present

107 (11.2)

Reference

Reference

Not present

420 (16.9)

1.51 (1.12–2.03)

0.007

1.46 (1.04–2.05)

0.03

Number of windows present

≥ 2 windows

98 (14.7)

Reference

Reference

1 window

326 (16.0)

1.09 (0.80–1.50)

0.58

0.95 (0.74–1.20)

0.65

No windows

103 (14.1)

0.94 (0.63–1.39)

0.75

0.92 (0.68–1.24)

0.59

Level of education

O level or beyond

104 (12.6)

Reference

Reference

None or primary

423 (16.2)

1.28 (0.95–1.73)

0.11

1.33 (1.03–1.72)

0.03

Categories of gravidity

Multigravida

202 (11.1)

Reference

Reference

Secundigravida

107 (12.9)

1.18 (0.86–1.62)

0.30

1.44 (1.13–1.83)

0.003

Primigravida

218 (27.5)

2.46 (1.89–3.20)

< 0.001

2.27 (1.84–2.80)

< 0.001

IPTp regimen

Monthly DP

9 (0.5)

Reference

Reference

Monthly SP

518 (30.8)

59.71 (31.03–114.91)

< 0.001

59.11 (30.76–113.59)

< 0.001

  1. RR risk ratio
  2. aMeasured at the time of routine visits done every 4 weeks during pregnancy (n = 3434)
  3. bAdjusted for wealth index, type of house construction, level of education, categories of gravidity and IPTp regimen
  4. cModern houses defined as those with plaster or cement walls, metal or wooden roof, and closed eaves; all other houses defined as traditional