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Table 4 Factors associated with microscopic parasitaemia during pregnancy following initiation of IPTp

From: Household and maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in a highly endemic area of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Variable Categories Parasitaemiaa n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
RR (95% CI) p-value aRRb (95% CI) p-value
Wealth index categories Least poor 135 (12.1) Reference Reference
Middle 206 (17.8) 1.37 (1.01–1.87) 0.04 1.34 (1.06–1.70) 0.02
Poorest 186 (16.0) 1.27 (0.93–1.73) 0.13 1.25 (0.97–1.62) 0.08
Type of house constructionc Modern 94 (12.1) Reference Reference
Traditional 433 (16.3) 1.36 (0.99–1.85) 0.06 1.18 (0.91–1.53) 0.22
Whether airbricks were present Present 107 (11.2) Reference Reference
Not present 420 (16.9) 1.51 (1.12–2.03) 0.007 1.46 (1.04–2.05) 0.03
Number of windows present ≥ 2 windows 98 (14.7) Reference Reference
1 window 326 (16.0) 1.09 (0.80–1.50) 0.58 0.95 (0.74–1.20) 0.65
No windows 103 (14.1) 0.94 (0.63–1.39) 0.75 0.92 (0.68–1.24) 0.59
Level of education O level or beyond 104 (12.6) Reference Reference
None or primary 423 (16.2) 1.28 (0.95–1.73) 0.11 1.33 (1.03–1.72) 0.03
Categories of gravidity Multigravida 202 (11.1) Reference Reference
Secundigravida 107 (12.9) 1.18 (0.86–1.62) 0.30 1.44 (1.13–1.83) 0.003
Primigravida 218 (27.5) 2.46 (1.89–3.20) < 0.001 2.27 (1.84–2.80) < 0.001
IPTp regimen Monthly DP 9 (0.5) Reference Reference
Monthly SP 518 (30.8) 59.71 (31.03–114.91) < 0.001 59.11 (30.76–113.59) < 0.001
  1. RR risk ratio
  2. aMeasured at the time of routine visits done every 4 weeks during pregnancy (n = 3434)
  3. bAdjusted for wealth index, type of house construction, level of education, categories of gravidity and IPTp regimen
  4. cModern houses defined as those with plaster or cement walls, metal or wooden roof, and closed eaves; all other houses defined as traditional