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Table 3 Factors associated with low level of cognitive development using univariate and multivariate hierarchical level analysis

From: Malaria impact on cognitive function of children in a peri-urban community in the Brazilian Amazon

Factors % OR CI 95% OR adjusted CI 95%
Socio-economic
 Brick-built house
  No 63.9 1    
  Yes 36.1 1097 0.513–2.346   
 Family income
  ≤ 1 min. wage 9.1 1    
  > 1 min. wage 90.9 0.92 0.254–3.326   
 Sewage system
  No 98.2 1    
  Yes 1.8 0.563 0.569–5.579   
 Housing conditions
  Precarious 21 1    
  Reasonable 43.4 0.632 0.247–1.617   
  Better conditions 35.6 1820 0.595–5.569   
 > 2 residents/room
  No 73.9 1    
  Yes 26.1 1.225 0.521–2.877   
Maternal and family conditions
 Adolescent mother
  No 99.1 1    
  Yes 0.1 0 0.011–3.042   
 Mother’s education
  Not study 90.4 1    
  Study 9.6 1 0.248–2.503   
 Disorders during pregnancy
  No 89.1 1    
  Yes 10.9 2240 0.502–9.993   
 Level of family stimulus
  More stimulated 25.1 1    
  Regularly stimulated 25.1 0.511 0.159–1.637   
  Little stimulated 26.1 0.375 0.122–1.147   
  Almost no stimulus 23.7 0.477 0.148–1.534   
Child health
 Malnutrition
  No 19.2 1    
  Yes 80.8 1307 0.543–3.127   
 Anemia
  No 84.1 1   1  
  Yes 15.9 2245 0.647–7.785 2.877 0.810–10.221
 Intestinal parasites
  No 16.4 1    
  Yes 83.6 1.062 0.405–2.779   
 Premature birth
  No 94.1 1    
  Yes 5.9 0.613 0.159–2.350   
 Low birth weight
  No 94.5 1    
  Yes 5.5 0.959 0.200–4.579   
 Breastfeeding until the sixth month
  No 54.1 1    
  Yes 45.9 0.824 0.345–1.965   
 Vaccinated
  No 10.1 1    
  Yes 89.9 0.225 0.029–1.734   
 Infectious disease in the last 30 days
  No 98.2 1    
  Yes 1.8 0.563 0.569–5.579   
 Chronic diseases
  No 98.2 1    
  Yes 1.8 0.563 0.569–5.579   
Exposure to malaria
 Occurrence of malaria
  No malaria history 54.3 1   1  
  Had an episode/more 45.7 2044 0.946–4.414 2.205 1.002–4.853
 Number of malaria episodes
  1 65 1    
  2 12 1.327 0.148–11.888   
  3 14 0.724 0.133–3.924   
  4 9.0 1 0.104–8.906   
 Exposure to Malaria
  No exposure 54.3 1    
  Mild 5.0 2.526 0.308–20.709   
  Moderate 33.8 2.084 0.882–4.923   
  Severe 6.9 1.642 0.346–6.194   
 Malaria-related hospitalization
  No 95.8 1    
  Yes 4.1 0.325 0.030–3.463   
 Malaria during pregnancy
  No 88.6 1    
  Yes 11.4 0.731 0.254–2.100   
 Malaria attacks during pregnancy
  No 94.1 1    
  Yes 5.9 0.4 0.116–1.382   
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval