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Table 3 Distribution and frequency of the L1014F knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles of An. gambiae s.l. populations from Togo

From: Insecticide resistance profiles of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Togo and genetic mechanisms involved, during 3-year survey: is there any need for resistance management?

Species  Agricultural practices Sites N Genotypes f (L1014F) [95% CI] p(HW)
1014L 1014L 1014F
1014L 1014F 1014F
An. arabiensis Cotton KOL 2012 1 0 0 1 0.98 [0.71–1.25]
KOL 2016 3 0 0 3 0.98 [0.82–1.14]
Vegetables BAG 2012 1 0 0 1 0.98 [0.71–1.25]
BAG 2013 2 0 0 2 0.98 [0.79–1.17]
An. coluzzii Rice KOV 2013 26 1 2 23 0.923 [0.82–1.03] 0.1167
KOV 2016 61 0 1 60 0.992 [0.97–1.01]
Cotton KOL 2013 133 49 1 83 0.628 [0.55–0.71] 0.0000
KOL 2016 15 1 0 14 0.933 [0.80–1.06]
Vegetables BAG 2013 2 0 0 2 0.98 [0.79–1.17]
BAG 2016 9 0 0 9 0.98 [0.89–1.07]
An. gambiae Cotton KOL 2012 60 0 0 60 0.98 [0.94–1.02]
KOL 2013 137 5 1 131 0.96 [0.93–0.99] 0.0000
KOL 2016 30 0 0 30 0.98 [0.93–1.03]
Vegetables BAG 2012 142 0 0 142 0.98 [0.96–1.00]
BAG 2013 62 0 0 62 0.98 [0.95–1.01]
BAG 2016 14 0 0 14 0.98 [0.86–1.10]
  1. KOV, Kovié; KOL, Kolokopé; BAG, Baguida; N, number of mosquitoes; f (L1014F), frequency of the L1014F resistant allele; CI, confidence interval; p(HW), probability of the exact test for goodness of fit Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium