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Table 1 Characteristics of studies. Characteristics of studies included in the systematic review, up to July 2018

From: Effectiveness of plant-based repellents against different Anopheles species: a systematic review

StudyYearCountryStudy typePlant extract/(essential oil)Concentration doseAnopheles speciesRepellency %Protection time (hours)
Ansari et al.2005IndiaFieldPine oil (Pinus)1 ml without dilutionAn. culicifacies10011
    Citronella (lemongrass oil)1 ml without dilutionAn. culicifacies10011
Ansari et al.2000IndiaFieldD. sissoo oil1 ml without dilutionAn. culicifacies96.110.3
    D. sissoo oil1 ml without dilutionAn. annularis10011
    D. sissoo oil1 ml without dilutionAn. subpictus89.78
Ansari et al.2000IndiaFieldPeppermint oil1 ml without dilutionAn. culicifacies92.39.6
    Peppermint oil1 ml without dilutionAn. annularis10011
    Peppermint oil1 ml without dilutionAn. subpictus83.17.3
Amer et al.2006GermanyLaboratoryCitronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi52.48
    Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi4.86.5
    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi80.98
    Camphor (C. camphora) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi42.88
    Catnip (N. cataria) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi61.98
    Thyme (T. serpyllum) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi33.37.5
    Eucalyptus (E. globulus) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi28.65.5
    Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Broad-leaved eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dives) essential oils20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi38.18
    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Lemon-scented eucalyptus (E. citriodora) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi52.48
    Fichtennadel (Picea excelsa) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi193
    Amyris (Amyris balsamifera) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Lemon (Citrus limon) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi9.57
    Narrow-leaved eucalyptus (Eucalyptus radiata) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi42.88
    Carotin oil (Glycina soja) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi9.58
    Cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi38.18
    frankincense (Boswellia carteri) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi195
    Dill (Anethum graveolens) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi71.43.5
    Myrtle (M. communis) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi42.86.5
    Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi76.28
    Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Juniper (Juniperus communis) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi76.28
    Sage (Salvia sclarea) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi195
    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi57.16.5
    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi66.73.5
    Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Soya bean (Glycina max) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi76.28
    Rosemary (R. officinalis) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Olive (O. europaea) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi71.48
    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi61.93
    Verbena (Lippia citriodora) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi38.15.5
    tagetes (T. minuta) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Violet (Viola odorata) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Sandalwood (Santalum album) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi47.66
    Galbanum (Ferula galbaniflua) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi1008
    Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) essential oil20% oil solutionsAn. stephensi47.65.5
Amerasan et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryCassia tora Linn methanol extract1 mg/cm2
2.5 mg/cm2
5.0 mg/cm2
An. stephensi100
Abiy et al.2015EthiopiaField20% neem oilNeem and chinaberry oils were diluted to 20% using Niger seed (noog abyssinia) oilAn. arabiensis713
    20% chinaberry oilNeem and chinaberry oils were diluted to 20% using Niger seed (noog abyssinia) oilAn. arabiensis701
Alayo et al.2015NigeriaLaboratoryCassia mimosoides petroleum ether extractCream 0.5% w/wAn. gambiae48
    Cream 1% w/w 88
    Cream 2% w/w 1000.08
    Cream 4% w/w 1000.08
    Cream 6% w/w 1000.08
Alwala et al.2010KenyaLaboratoryMangifera indica essential Oil10% solutionAn. gambiae100
Baskar et al.2018IndiaLaboratoryAtalantia monophylla essential oil50 ppmAn. stephensi6.85
Govindarajan et al.2010IndiaLaboratorySida acuta Burm. F. extract2.5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
Govindarajan et al.2011IndiaLaboratoryErvatamia coronaria extract1 mg/cm2
2.5 mg/cm2
5 mg/cm2
An. stephensi
An. stephensi
An. stephensi
  Caesalpinia pulcherrima extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
   2.5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
Govindarajan et al.2011IndiaLaboratory 5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
 2.5 mg/cm2
5 mg/cm2
An. subpictus
An. subpictus
   R. officinalis L. essential oil1 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001
    2.5 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001
    5 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001.5
    C. citrates Stapf. essential oil1 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001
    2.5 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001.5
     5 mg/cm2An. subpictus1002
    C. zeylanicum L. essential oil1 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001
    2.5 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001
    5 mg/cm2An. subpictus1001.5
Govindarajan et al.2016IndiaLaboratoryZingiber nimmonii essential oil1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
   2 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
Jeyabalan et al.2003IndiaLaboratoryP. citrosa leaf extract0.5%An. stephensi36
   1%An. stephensi51
    2%An. stephensi78
     4%An. stephensi100
Karunamoorthi et al.2008EthiopiaLaboratoryWoira (O. europaea) smokeBurning of 25 g of dried plant materialsAn. arabiensis79.7
    Tinjut (Ostostegia integrifolia) smokeBurning of 25 g of dried plant materialsAn. arabiensis90.1
    Wogert (Silene macroserene) smokeBurning of 25 g of dried plant materialsAn. arabiensis93.6
    Kebercho (Echinops sp.) extractBurning of 25 g of dried plant materialsAn. arabiensis92.4
Karunamoorthi et al.2010EthiopiaLaboratoryC. citratus extract1 mg/cm2An. arabiensis1003.2
    1.5 mg/cm2An. arabiensis1004.4
   2 mg/cm2An. arabiensis1005.3
     2.5 mg/cm2An. arabiensis1006.3
Govindarajan et al.2016IndiaLaboratoryOriganum scabrum essential oil1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   2 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
   5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003.5
Haldar et al.2014IndiaLaboratoryFicus krishnae smoke30 mg/l smokedAn. stephensi180.16
     60 mg/l smokedAn. stephensi1000.5
     90 mg/l smokedAn. stephensi1001
Auysawasdi et al.2015ThailandLaboratoryCurcuma longa essential oil5%An. dirus1004
   10%An. dirus1005
    15%An. dirus1005.5
     20%An. dirus1005.5
     25%An. dirus1008
    E. globulus essential oil5%An. dirus1001.7
    10%An. dirus1002.3
     15%An. dirus1003
     20%An. dirus1003
     25%An. dirus1003.4
    Citrus aurantium essential oil5%An. dirus1001.8
    10%An. dirus1002.9
     15%An. dirus1002.9
     20%An. dirus1003
     25%An. dirus1003.5
Barnard et al.1999USALaboratoryClove essential oil25%An. albimanus1001.25
    50%An. albimanus1001.5
     75%An. albimanus1002.26
     100%An. albimanus1003.55
    Thyme essential oil25%An. albimanus1000.75
    50%An. albimanus1000.5
     75%An. albimanus1001
     100%An. albimanus1001.75
Kweka et al.2008TanzaniaLaboratoryCitronella500 mg/m2An. gambiae81
   Ocimum suave extract500 mg/m2An. gambiae81
    Ocimum kilimandscharicum extract500 mg/m2An. gambiae73
    Citronella500 mg/m2An. arabiensis85
    O. suave extract500 mg/m2An. arabiensis89
    O. kilimandscharicum extract500 mg/m2An. arabiensis75
Kovendan et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryA. alnifolia extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
   3 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
    5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
Krishnappa et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryA. digitata crude extract2 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
   4 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003.5
    6 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003.5
Naine et al.2014IndiaLaboratoryStreptomyces sp. VITJS4 extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
   3 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
     6 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
Murugan et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryOrange peel extract50 ppmAn. stephensi99
   150 ppmAn. stephensi1000.5
    250 ppmAn. stephensi1000.05
     350 ppmAn. stephensi1001.5
     450 ppmAn. stephensi1002
Padilha et al.2003BrazilFieldOcimum selloi oil10% v/vAn. braziliensis890.5
Konan et al.2003Ivory CoastLaboratoryKarite nut butter oil75%An. gambiae1002
    Palm oil75%An. gambiae1001.38
    Coconut oil75%An. gambiae1000.76
Maheswaran et al.2013IndiaLaboratoryConfertifolin essential oil0.62 ppmAn. stephensi1001
   1.25 ppmAn. stephensi1002.5
   2.5 ppmAn. stephensi1003
     5 ppmAn. stephensi1005
     10 ppmAn. stephensi1005.2
Panneerselvam et al.2013IndiaLaboratoryAndrographis paniculata methanol leaf extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
   3 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   6 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
   Cassia occidentalis methanol leaf extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
    3 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
    6 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
    Euphorbia hirta methanol leaf extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
    3 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
    6 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
Panneerselvam et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryArtemisia nilagirica extract50 ppmAn. stephensi950.5
   150 ppmAn. stephensi980.5
   250 ppmAn. stephensi1000.5
    350 ppmAn. stephensi1001
     450 ppmAn. stephensi1002
Phasomkusolsil et al.2011ThailandLaboratoryCananga odorata oil0.02 mg/cm2An. dirus94
   0.10 mg/cm2An. dirus92
   0.21 mg/cm2An. dirus92
   C. sinensis oil0.02 mg/cm2An. dirus40
     0.10 mg/cm2An. dirus54
     0.21 mg/cm2An. dirus84
    C. citratus oil0.02 mg/cm2An. dirus76
     0.10 mg/cm2An. dirus82
     0.21 mg/cm2An. dirus98
    Cymbopogon nardus oil0.02 mg/cm2An. dirus92
    0.10 mg/cm2An. dirus92
     0.21 mg/cm2An. dirus98
    E. citriodora oil0.02 mg/cm2An. dirus52
     0.10 mg/cm2An. dirus74
     0.21 mg/cm2An. dirus86
    O. basilicum oil0.02 mg/cm2An. dirus66
     0.10 mg/cm2An. dirus74
     0.21 mg/cm2An. dirus96
    S. aromaticum oil0.02 mg/cm2An. dirus82
     0.10 mg/cm2An. dirus92
     0.21 mg/cm2An. dirus98
Prabhu et al.2011IndiaLaboratoryMoringa oleifera extract20%An. stephensi23
   40%An. stephensi43
     60%An. stephensi58
     80%An. stephensi76
     100%An. stephensi90
Rajkumar et al.2007IndiaLaboratoryCentella asiatica essential oil2%An. stephensi1
   4%An. stephensi1.78
   6%An. stephensi2.33
    Ipomoea cairica essential oil2%An. stephensi2.63
    4%An. stephensi4.13
     6%An. stephensi5.53
    Momordica charantia essential oil2%An. stephensi2.38
    4%An. stephensi3.93
    6%An. stephensi5.38
    Psidium guajava essential oil2%An. stephensi0.93
    4%An. stephensi1.48
     6%An. stephensi1.98
    Tridax procumbens essential oil2%An. stephensi2.33
    4%An. stephensi3.78
    6%An. stephensi5.28
Rajkumar et al.2005IndiaLaboratorySolanum trilobatum extract0.001%An. stephensi1001.15
   0.005%An. stephensi1001.3
   0.01%An. stephensi1001.51
     0.015%An. stephensi1001.7
     0.02%An. stephensi1002.03
Rawani et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryP. tuberosa extract1%An. stephensi652.3
   1.50%An. stephensi804
   2%An. stephensi905
Reegan et al.2015IndiaLaboratoryCliona celata extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1001.08
   2.5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1001.71
     5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1001.21
Swathi et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryDatura stramonium extract0.1%An. stephensi0.35
   0.5%An. stephensi0.72
    1%An. stephensi1.9
Seyoum et al.2002KenyaSemi-fieldNeem (A. indica)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae24.5
    Lemon eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae74.5
    Wild spikenard (Hyptis suaveolens)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae-13.3
    Lantana (Lantana camara)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae42.4
    Fever tea (Lippia uckambensis)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae45.9
    Lime basil (Ocimum americanum)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae43.1
    Rican blue basil (O. kilimandscharicum)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae52.0
    Tree basil (O. suave)Periodic thermal expulsionAn. gambiae53.1
    Khaki weed (T. minuta)Placing branches or whole plants inside housesAn. gambiae54.8
Sanghong et al.2015ThailandLaboratoryL. sinense ethanolic preparations25%An. minimus11.5
Das et al.2003IndiaLaboratoryCymbopogan martinii martinii var sofia oil1 ml without dilutionAn. sundaicus986
Nour et al.2009SudanLaboratoryBasil (O. basilicum L.) essential oil0.1 ml 1001.5
Trongtokit et al.2005ThailandLaboratoryC. nardus essential oil10%An. dirus0.66
   50% 0.5
   100% 1.16
   P. cablin essential oil10%An. dirus1.33
    50% 2
     100% 2.83
    Mullilam (Zanthoxylum limonella) essential oil10%An. dirus1
    50% 2.16
    100% 3.16
    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil10%An. dirus1.33
    50% 2.66
    100% 3.5
Yogananth et al.2015IndiaLaboratoryR. mucronata oil1 mg/cm2An. stephensi737.2
    2 mg/cm2An. stephensi867.8
    3 mg/cm2An. stephensi928.5
     4 mg/cm2An. stephensi979.1
Tawatsin et al.2000ThailandLaboratoryTurmeric (C. longa) volatile oil3 mlAn. dirus1006
   Citronella3 mlAn. dirus1006
    Hairy basil oil3 mlAn. dirus1006
Singh et al.2005IndiaLaboratoryCyperus rotundus Linn hexane extract2.50%An. stephensi95
   5%An. stephensi99
    10%An. stephensi1006
Mayeku et al.2013KenyalaboratoryConyza newii essential oil0.01 g/mlAn. gambiae38
   0.1 g/mlAn. gambiae68
     1 g/mlAn. gambiae100
Phasomkusolsil et al.2009ThailandLaboratoryPhlai (Z. cassumunar) oil100 μlAn. minimus2
   Turmeric (C. longa) oil100 μlAn. minimus1
    Mah-Khwuaen (Z. limonella) oil100 μlAn. minimus0.66
    Citronella grass (C. nardus) oil100 μlAn. minimus2.16
    Orange oil (Citrus sinensis) oil100 μlAn. minimus0.83
    Eucalyptus (E. citriodora) oil100 μlAn. minimus0.5
    Clove (S. aromaticum) oil100 μlAn. minimus2
Trongtokit et al.2004ThailandLaboratoryClove oil20% gelAn. dirus4.5
    cream 20%An. dirus4.8
Birkett et al.2011KenyaLaboratoryN. cataria0.01 mgAn. gambiae17
    0.1 mgAn. gambiae97
     1 mgAn. gambiae100
Kamaraj et al.2011IndiaLaboratoryA. concinna extract500 ppmAn. stephensi21
Solomon et al.2012EthiopiaLaboratoryCitronella extract20%An. Arabiensis73
Soonwera et al.2015ThailandLaboratoryC. odorata oil1%An. dirus92
    5%An. dirus92
    10%An. dirus94
Sritabutra et al.2011ThailandLaboratoryEucalyptus (E. globules) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus1.58
    Peppermint (M. piperita) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus1.08
    Garlic (A. sativum) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus0.68
    Orange (C. sinensis) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus0.83
    Citronella grass (C. nardus) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus0.8
    Lemongrass (C. citratus) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus1.63
    Clove (S. aromaticum) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus1
    Sweet basil (O. basilicum) essencial oil0.1 mlAn. dirus0.75
Tavassoli et al.2001iranLaboratoryMarigold (Calendula officinalis) essential oil50%An. stephensi2.15
    Myrtle essential oil50%An. stephensi4.36
Younoussa et al.2016CameroonLaboratoryAnnona senegalensis leaf extract4.0 mg/cm2An. gambiae0.5
 8.0 mg/cm2An. gambiae1
 12.0 mg/cm2An. gambiae1.5
   Boswellia dalzielii leaf extract4.0 mg/cm2An. gambiae46 
    8.0 mg/cm2An. gambiae0.5
     12.0 mg/cm2An. gambiae1
Govindarajan et al.2011IndiaLaboratoryCoccinia indica extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
   2.5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
   5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003.5
Govindarajan et al.2012IndiaLaboratoryCardiospermum halicacabum oil1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002
   2.5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
Govindarajan et al.2014IndiaLaboratoryAsparagus racemosus crude extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   2 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
Govindarajan et al.2015IndiaLaboratoryDelonix elata crude extract1 mg/cm2An. stephensi1002.5
   2.5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003
    5 mg/cm2An. stephensi1003.5
Innocent et al.2014KenyaLaboratoryUvariodendron gorgonis essential oil0.01 w/vAn. gambiae29
   0.1 w/vAn. gambiae48
   1 w/vAn. gambiae57
     10 w/vAn. gambiae64
    Clausena anisata essential oil0.01 w/vAn. gambiae13
    0.1 w/vAn. gambiae21
     1 w/vAn. gambiae42
     10 w/vAn. gambiae56
    Lantana vibunoides essential oil0.01 w/vAn. gambiae26
    0.1 w/vAn. gambiae46
    1 w/vAn. gambiae54
     10 w/vAn. gambiae62
Kumar et al.2012IndiaLaboratorySargassum wightii Greville methanolic extract2 mg/lAn. sundaicus26
   4 mg/lAn. sundaicus40
    6 mg/lAn. sundaicus57
    8 mg/lAn. sundaicus71
     10 mg/lAn. sundaicus89
Madhiyazhagan et al.2014IndiaLaboratoryO. canum extract0.49 mg/lAn. stephensi63
    0.99 mg/lAn. stephensi77
    1.99 mg/lAn. stephensi86