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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and information about malaria among control and intervention groups in the study

From: Effectiveness of a health education intervention on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women of Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

Variables Control group (n = 100) Intervention group (n = 100) p value
 Age (years)
  ≤ 25 22 (22%) 39 (39%) 0.029*
  26–30 53 (53%) 39 (39%)
  31 and above 25 (25%) 22 (22%)
 Education
  Uneducated 62 (62%) 83 (83%) 0.001*
  Primary 16 (16%) 13 (13%)
  Any other type of education 22 (22%) 4 (4%)
 Number of living children
  1–2 17 (17%) 10 (10%) 0.111
  3–4 54 (54%) 63 (63%)
  5–6 9 (9%) 15 (15%)
  7–9 20 (20%) 12 (12%)
 Age at marriage (years)
  15, 16 12 (12%) 11 (11%) 0.073
  17 18 (18%) 34 (34%)
  18 43 (43%) 36 (36%)
  19–22 27 (27%) 19 (19%)
 Type of household
  Mud house 79 (79%) 82 (82%) 0.592
  Brick house 21 (21%) 18 (18%)
 Number of rooms
  1–2 30 (30%) 21 (21%) 0.144
  3–4 70 (70%) 79 (79%)
 Owns a mobile phone
  Yes 54 (54%) 21 (21%) 0.001*
  No 46 (46%) 79 (79%)
 Source of drinking water
  Well outside home 71 (71%) 49 (49%) 0.001*
  Well inside home 29 (29%) 51 (51%)
 Type of latrine
  Open 51 (51%) 26 (26%) 0.001*
  Pit latrine 49 (49%) 74 (74%)
 Mode of sewage drainage in house
  Open sewers 64 (64%) 33 (33%) 0.001*
  Underground sewers 2 (2%) 25 (25%)
  Open pond 34 (34%) 42 (42%)
 Income (PKR)
  5,000 37 (37%) 76 (76%) 0.001*
  6000–10,000 48 (48%) 22 (22%)
  11,000–15,000 15 (15%) 2 (2%)
 Previous stillbirth (28 weeks)
  Yes 35 (35%) 20 (20%) 0.018*
  No 65 (65%) 80 (80%)
 Previous newborn death
  Yes 26 (26%) 18 (18%) 0.172
  No 74 (74%) 82 (82%)
 Antenatal counselling on malaria
  Yes 35 (35%) 24 (24%) 0.088
  No 65 (65%) 76 (76%)
 Counselling topics
  Use LLINs 4 (4%) 3 (3%) 0.925
  Indoor spray 27 (27%) 19 (19%)
  Take preventive medicine 4 (4%) 2 (2%)
 Malaria during previous pregnancies
  Yes 15 (15%) 29 (29%) 0.017*
  No 85 (85%) 71 (71%)
 Malaria during current pregnancy
  Yes 2 (2%) 1 (1%) 0.561
  No 98 (98%) 99 (99%)
 Ever heard about malaria
  Yes 34 (34%) 23 (23%) 0.085
  No 66 (66%) 77 (77%)
 Source of information about malaria
  Health worker 32 (32%) 21 (21%) 0.683
  Other 2 (2%) 2 2(%)
  1. *Significant (p ≤ 0.05)