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Table 1 Characteristic of included studies

From: Correlation between anti-malarial and anti-haemozoin activities of anti-malarial compounds

Author/Year/Country Chemical groups Plasmodium falciparum strain Anti-hemozoin assay Correlation test Correlation results Risk of bias
Acharya/2010/India [21] Pyrazoline Chloroquine-sensitive MRC-02 High concentration of acetate Pearson’s r r = 0.62a Reliable without restrictions
Pyrazoline (+chloroquine) r = 0.63a
Pyrazoline Chloroquine resistant RKL9 r = 0.54a
Pyrazoline (+chloroquine) r = 0.40a
Andayi/2013/South Africa [22] Quinoline (chloroquine deprotected analogues) Chloroquine sensitive 3D7 Heat-induced β-haematin R2 R2 = 0.92 Reliable with restrictions
Spearman ρ = 0.595 (p = 0.12)
Chloroquine resistant W2 R2 R2 = 0.95
Spearman ρ = 0.976 (p = 0.00003)
Chloroquine resistant K1 Spearman ρ = 0.643 (p = 0.119)
Quinoline (chloroquine benzylated analogues) Chloroquine sensitive 3D7 R2 R2 = 0.96
Spearman ρ = 0.464 (p = 0.294)
Chloroquine resistant W2 R2 R2 = 0.93
Spearman ρ = 0.821 (p = 0.023)
Chloroquine resistant K1 Spearman ρ = 0.571 (p = 0.139)
Quinoline (chloroquine methoxy analogues) Chloroquine resistant W2 Spearman ρ = -0.600 (p = 0.6)
Hawley/1998/UK [23] Quinoline Chloroquine sensitive 3D7 Preformed β-haemozoin Pearson’s r r = 0.81 Reliable with restrictions
Chloroquine resistant K1 r = 0.17
Burgess/2010/USA [30] Quinoline (Reversed chloroquinolines) Chloroquine sensitive D6 Tween 20-induced β-haematin R2 R2 = 0.66 Not reliable
Spearman ρ = 0.476 (p = 0.233)
Chloroquine resistant Dd2 Spearman ρ = 0.574 (p = 0.183)
Chloroquine resistant 7G8 Spearman ρ = 0.333 (p = 0.42)
Vennerstrom/1998/USA [34] Biquinolines Chloroquine sensitive D6 Preformed β-haemozoin Pearson’s r r = 0.29 Not reliable
Chloroquine resistant W2 r = 0.55
Chloroquine sensitive D6
Chloroquine resistant W2
r = 0.57
Chloroquine sensitive D6 Spearman ρ = 0.376 (p = 0.254)
Chloroquine resistant W2 ρ = 0.67 (p = 0.024)
Chloroquine sensitive D6
Chloroquine resistant W2
ρ = 0.519 (p = 0.013)
Dorn/1998/Switzerland [31] Quinolines, quinacrine and halofantrine Quinoline sensitive NF54 Preformed β-haemozoin Pearson’s r r = 0.919 (p = 0.003) Reliable with restrictions
Kaschula/2002/South Africa [32] Quinoline Chloroquine sensitive D10 High concentration of acetate - R2 R2 = 0.83a Reliable with restrictions
Chloroquine sensitive D10 Spearman ρ = 0.919a
Ignatushchenko/1997/USA [35] Xanthone Chloroquine sensitive D6 Phosphate-induced β-haematin Spearman ρ = 0.886 (p = 0.019) Reliable with restrictions
Guetzoyan/2009/France [24] Acridine Chloroquine sensitive 3D7 High concentration of acetate Spearman ρ = 0.095 (p = 0.823) Reliable with restrictions
Chloroquine sensitive W2 ρ = 0.299 (p = 0.471)
Chloroquine resistant FCR3 ρ = 0.381 (p = 0.352)
Chloroquine resistant Bre1 ρ = 0.261 (p = 0.531)
Sandlin/2014/USA [33] Quinoline
4-benzamidopyridine Quinazoline
Phenyl benzamides
Nicotinamide
Carbazole
Miscellaneous compounds
Chloroquine sensitive D6 NP-40-induced β-haematin Spearman ρ = 0.35 (p = 0.322) Reliable with restrictions
Chloroquine sensitive C235 ρ = 0.139 (p = 701)
  1. aThe logarithmic correlation