Skip to main content

Table 1 Malaria epidemiology, decision making structures and policies for control

From: How useful are malaria risk maps at the country level? Perceptions of decision-makers in Kenya, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo

  Kenya Malawi DRC
Epidemiology
 Overview High variability in malaria parasite prevalence across the country, with endemic counties around Lake Victoria and on the coast, epidemic-prone counties in the highland areas, seasonal counties and low risk counties around Nairobi [51,52,53] Relatively homogeneous prevalence of malaria with higher burden along Lake Malawi in the Central and Southern regions [54] Homogeneous hyperendemic to holoendemic malaria transmission across the country, with the exception of the mountainous area in the eastern provinces (0.2% of the population), and in the capital city Kinshasa [55, 56]
 Number of estimated cases in 2018 (GMR2019) 3.6 M 3.8 M 26.8 M
 Number of estimated deaths in 2018 (GMR2019) 12,416 6678 44,615
 Main vectors Predominance of An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s Predominance of An. gambiae, and minority of An. arabiensis and An. funestus Predominance of An. gambiae and An. funestus. In addition presence of An. moucheti, An. nili
Decision-making for malaria control
 Administrative levels of decision-making Since 2010 Kenya has a decentralized system of 47 counties. The counties are assigned the service delivery functions while the national government provides national referral, policy guidelines, capacity building and technical assistance Malawi is divided into three regions and 28 districts (local government units), which are further divided into Traditional Authorities ruled by a chief
Policies are defined at national level; districts have technical support and monitoring functions
The country reorganised the province level in late 2015 increasing the number of provinces from 11 to 26
Policies are determined at national level. Health directorates, present in the 26 provinces, perform functions of technical support and monitoring. Under the health directorates there are 65 health districts and 515 Health zones. The Health Zone is the operational unit for planning and implementation of the national health policy
 Dates when NMCPs was established 2000 1984 1998
 National Malaria Strategic Plans (post-RBM) 2001–2010
2009–2018
2019–2023
1990–1994
2001–2005
2005–2010
2011–2016
2017–2022
2002–2006
2007–2011
Replaced by 2009–2013 NMSP (in line with RBM targets)
Replaced by 2011–2015 NMSP aligned with the broader health sector strategic plan
2016–2020
 GF and PMI support start dates GF: 2002
PMI: 2008
GF: 2003
PMI: 2007
GF: 2003
PMI: 2011
Policies
 LLINs policies LLINs are delivered through mass and routine distribution, including at ANC and Child Welfare Clinics, in the 23 endemic and epidemic-prone and the 13 malaria-prone counties LLINs are delivered through mass and routine distribution at ANC and implemented universally LLINs are delivered through mass and routine distribution at ANC and implemented universally
 IPTp policies IPTp 3 plus is delivered at routine ANC visits and implemented in the 14 lake and coastal endemic counties IPTp 3 plus is delivered at routine ANC visits and implemented universally IPTp 3 plus is delivered at routine ANC visits and implemented universally
 IRS policies The NMCP targets spraying in the lake-endemic counties of western Kenya (7 counties) The NMCP targets spraying according to level of risk and budget availability (along Lake Malawi and in the southern districts) The NMCP targets spraying according to level of risk and budget availability