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Table 1 Characteristics of anti-malarial drug efficacy trials

From: Global estimation of anti-malarial drug effectiveness for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 1991–2019

  Africa Asia South America Totala
Number of ACT-studies (%) 133 (69.4) 65 (28.0) 6 (2.6) 204
Number of non-ACT-studies (%) 62 (100) 0 0 62
Number of subjects (%) 64,553 (74.4) 21,168 (24.4) 1,055 (1.2) 86,776
Study year, range 1993–2015 1991–2016 2004–2016 1993–2016
Age at enrolment (no of studies)
 Under 5 years of age 67 2 0 69
 All ages 128 63 6 197
Treatment studied (no of treatment arms in efficacy study)
 ACT (including monotherapy)
  Artesunate 21 24 1 46
  Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) 169 32 2 203
  Artesunate–amodiaquine (ASAQ) 94 6 1 101
  Artesunate–mefloquine (ASMQ) 15 62 3 80
  Artesunate–sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (ASSP) 41 47 0 88
  Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DHAP) 50 53 1 104
 Non-ACT
  Chloroquine (CQ) 35 0 0 35
  Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) 69 0 0 69
  Others 30 0 0 30
Efficacy %, median
 ACT (including monotherapy) 97.9 100 100 99.3
  Artesunate 86.4 100 100 95.5
  Artemether–lumefantrine 97.8 97.4 100 98.4
  Artesunate–amodiaquine 97.8 94.9 97.1 96.6
  Artesunate–mefloquine 99.3 99.2 100 99.5
  Artesunate–sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine 97.7 100   98.9
  Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine 98.4 100 99.2 99.2
 Non-ACT 83.1    83.1
  Chloroquine 61.1    61.1
  Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine 91.3    91.3
  Others 82.3    82.3
  1. aSome studies assessed both drugs, hence counted twice