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Table 3 Factors associated with malaria parasitaemia at first antenatal clinic attendance in the middle belt of Ghana

From: Epidemiology of malaria among pregnant women during their first antenatal clinic visit in the middle belt of Ghana: a cross sectional study

Factors Malaria Parasitaemia COR 95% CI Overall p-value AOR 95% CI Overall p-value
Total (N = 1647)
n
Present (N = 338)
n (%)
Absent (N = 1309)
n (%)
Age, years
 < 25 582 183 (31.4) 399 (68.6) 1   < 0.001 1   0.001
 ≥ 25 1065 155 (14.6) 910 (85.4) 0.37 0.29-0.47   0.57 0.41–0.79  
Gestation age, weeksa
 < 18 1111 222 (20.0) 889 (80.0) 1   0.394    
 ≥ 18 518 113 (21.8) 405 (78.2) 1.12 0.87–1.44     
Education
 No education 479 108 (22.6) 371 (77.4) 1   0.009 1   0.041
 Primary 285 66 (23.2) 219 (76.8) 1.04 0.73–1.47   0.87 0.60–1.26  
 Junior High 540 115 (21.3) 425 (78.7) 0.93 0.69–1.25   0.73 0.52–1.03  
 High School or above 343 49 (14.3) 294 (85.7) 0.57 0.40–0.83   0.53 0.33–0.83  
HH SES
 Most poor 330 105 (31.8) 225 (68.2) 1   < 0.001 1   < 0.001
 More poor 329 65 (19.8) 264 (80.2) 0.53 0.37–0.75   0.42 0.33–0.71  
 Poor 330 74 (22.4) 256 (77.6) 0.62 0.44–0.88   0.61 0.42–0.90  
 Less poor 327 59 (18.0) 268 (82.0) 0.47 0.33–0.68   0.51 0.34–0.78  
 Least poor 331 35 (10.6) 296 (89.4) 0.25 0.17–0.39   0.34 0.21–0.54  
Marital status
 Married 1218 215 (17.7) 1003 (82.4) 1   < 0.001 1   0.102
 Not married 429 123 (28.7) 306 (71.3) 1.88 1.45–2.42   1.30 0.95–1.78  
Profession
 No profession 392 107 (27.3) 285 (72.7) 1   < 0.001 1   0.213
 Professional teacher, clerical, secretary 83 5 (6.0) 78 (94.0) 0.17 0.07–0.43   0.44 0.16–1.20  
 Trader, food seller 510 70 (13.7) 440 (86.3) 0.42 0.30–0.59   0.67 0.46–0.97  
 Seamstress, hairdresser, 258 57 (22.1) 201 (77.9) 0.76 0.52–1.09   0.88 0.59–1.32  
 Farmer/labourer 348 83 (23.9) 265 (76.1) 0.83 0.60–1.16   0.88 0.60–1.29  
 Other 56 16 (28.6) 40 (71.4) 1.07 0.57–1.98   1.08 0.60–2.09  
Religion
 Christian 1210 255 (21.1) 955 (78.9) 1   0.392    
 Muslim 364 66 (18.1) 298 (81.9) 0.83 0.61–1.12     
 None/others 73 17 (23.3) 56 (76.7) 1.14 0.65–1.99     
Gravidity
 Primigravidae 353 110 (31.2) 243 (68.8) 1   < 0.001 1   0.002
 Secundigravidae 391 91 (23.3) 300 (76.7) 0.67 0.48–0.93   0.78 0.55–1.11  
 Multigravidae 903 137 (15.2) 766 (84.8) 0.40 0.30–0.53   0.50 0.33–0.74  
ITN use
 No 559 102 (18.3) 457 (81.8) 1   0.100 1   
 Yes 1088 236 (21.7) 852 (78.3) 1.24 0.96–1.61   1.43 1.09–1.89 0.010
  1. HH SES: Household socio-economic status; ITN: Insecticide-treated bednet
  2. aMissing for 18 participants