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Table 1 Summary of main features of included articles

From: Malaria distribution and performance of malaria diagnostic methods in Malaysia (1980–2019): a systematic review

No References Sample size (N) Period of sample collectiona Study design Study areab Prevalence by microscopy, n (%) Pf, Pv, Pm, Po by microscopy, n (%) Pk by microscopy, n (%) Mixed infection by microscopy, n (%) Prevalence by PCR, n (%) Pf, Pv, Pm, Po by PCR, n (%) Pk by PCR, n (%) Mixed infection by PCR, n (%)
1 Jiram et al. [24] 1995 2013–2014 Cross-sectional Borneo 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 145 (7.3) 116 (80) 9 (6.2) 20 (13.8)
2 Cooper et al. c [5] 3867 2015–2017 Hospital Borneo 3788 (98) 264 (7) 3524 (93) 0 (0) 3580 (99.5) 283 (7.9) 3262 (91.1)  
3 Grigg et al. [32] 852 2012–2016 Hospital Borneo 846 (99.3) 81 (9.6)   7 (0.8)     
4 Grigg et al. c [33] 872 2012–2016 Hospital Borneo 854 (97.9) 309 (36.2) 529 (61.9)   789 (97.3) 300 (38) 482 (61.1) 6 (0.8)
5 Jeffree et al. [34] 470 2012 Cross-sectional Borneo 11 (2.3) 11 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0)   
6 Liew et al. [35] 3757 2016–2017 Cross-sectional Peninsular 164 (4.4) 164 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 43 (26.5) 43 (100)   
7 Siner et al. [25] 3002 2014–2015 Cross-sectional Borneo 5 (0.2) 0 (0) 5 (100) 0 (0) 9 (0.3) 1 (11.1) 7 (77.8)  
8 Grigg et al. c [36] 414 2012–2015 Cross-sectional Borneo 414 (100)     412 (99.5) 90 (21.8) 268 (65) 2 (0.5)
9 Mohd Abdul Razak et al. c [37] 4257 2008–2009, 2011, 2014 Cross-sectional Borneo 112 (2.6) 60 (53.6)    112 (2.6)    
10 Britton et al. c [38] 261 2012 Hospital Borneo 149 (57.1)     149 (57.1) 88 (59.1) 56 (37.6) 1 (0.7)
11 Stanis et al. c [28] 129 2012–2013 Hospital Borneo 109 (84.5) 101 (92.7) 6 (5.5) 2 (1.8) 103 (79.8) 35 (34) 68 (66)  
12 Fornace et al. 2016c [39] 2006 2008–2012 Hospital Borneo 1847 (100) 1847 (1847) 0 (0) 0 (0) 346 (100) 33 (9.5) 313 (90.5)  
13 Jiram et al. 2016 [40] 306   Cross-sectional Peninsular      113 (36.9) 59 (52.2) 23 (20.4) 31 (52.5)
14 Othman et al. c [41] 94 2007–2010 Hospital Borneo 94 (100) 93 (98.9) 0 (0) 1 (1.1) 94 (100) 92 (98.9)   2 (2.1)
15 Fornace et al. [23] 1147 2012–2014 Hospital Borneo 1 (0.1)     206 (18)   20 (9.7)  
16 Lee et al. [27] 207 2012–2013 Hospital Borneo      207 (100) 53 (25.7) 152 (73.4)  
17 Chua et al. [42] 229 2008–2010 Hospital Borneo 215 (93.9) 214 (99.5) 0 (0) 1 (0.5) 226 (98.7) 185 (89.4) 36 (15.9) 2 (0.9)
18 Barber et al. [43] 774 2012–2013 Hospital Borneo 774 (100) 757 (97.8) 0 (0) 17 (2.2)     
19 Vythilingam et al. [44] 4353 2009–2013 Hospital Peninsular 1284 (29.5) 1262 (98.3) 0 (0) 22 (1.7)     
20 Foster et al. [45] 84 2010–2011 Hospital Borneo      84 (100) 15 (17.9) 69 (82.1)  
21 Yusof et al. c [9] 457   Hospital Borneo and Peninsular 457 (100) 274 (60) 181 (39.6) 2 (0.4) 453 (99.1) 185 (40.8) 256 (56.5) 12 (2.6)
22 Braima et al. [46] 1623 2006–2012 Hospital Peninsular 1623 (100) 1522 (93.8) 75 (4.6) 26 (1.6)     
23 Goh et al. c [7] 189 2008–2011 Hospital Borneo 189 (100) 186 (98.4) 0 (0) 3 (1.6) 178 (94.2) 134 (75.3) 42 (24) 2 (1.1)
24 Barber et al. c [47] 387 2010–2011 Hospital Borneo 387 (100) 221 (57.1) 150 (38.8) 16 (4.1) 295 (100) 165 (55.9) 130 (44.1)  
25 Barber et al. c [48] 18,993 2009–2011 Hospital Borneo 653 (3.4) 558 (85.5) 0 (0) 95 (14.5) 475 (97.9) 58 (12.2) 345 (72.3) 48 (10.1)
26 Khin et al. c [49] 445 2009 Hospital Borneo 445 (100) 318 (71.5) 0 (0) 25 (5.6) 343 (100)   256 (74.6) 87 (25.4)
27 Norahmad et al. [50] 619 2008–2009 Hospital Borneo 58 (9.4) 31 (53.4)       
28 William et al. c [51] 78 2007–2009 Hospital Borneo 78 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 63 (100) 2 (3.2) 56 (88.9) 5 (7.9)
29 Barber et al. c [52] 220 2009 Hospital Borneo 220 (100) 184 (83.6) 0 (0) 36 (16.4) 155 (96.3) 9 (5.8) 127 (81.9) 12 (7.7)
30 Daneshvar et al. [53] 188 2006–2008 Hospital Borneo 188 (100) 60 (31.9) 121 (64.4) 7 (3.7)     
31 Lee et al. c [54] 47 1996 Hospital Borneo 47 (100) 47 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 36 (76.6) 1 (2.8) 29 (80.6) 6 (16.7)
32 Gurpreet [55] 520 2000–2001 Cross-sectional Peninsular 126 (24.2) 126 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0)     
33 Vythilingam et al. c [8] 111 2005–2008 Hospital Borneo and Peninsular 111 (100) 108 (97.3) 0 (0) 3 (2.7) 111 (100) 33 (29.7) 65 (58.6) 13 (11.7)
34 Cox-Singh et al. c [56] 960 2001–2006 Hospital Borneo 960 (100) 958 (99.8) 0 (0) 2 (0.2) 960 (100) 664 (69.2) 243 (25.3) 53 (5.5)
35 Nimir et al. [57] 382 1998–2003 Hospital Peninsular 382 (100) 347 (90.8) 0 (0) 35 (9.2)     
36 Jamaiah et al. [58] 94 1999–2004 Hospital Peninsular 94 (100) 89 (94.7) 0 (0) 5 (5.3)     
37 Jamaiah et al. [59] 86 1994–2003 Hospital Peninsular 86 (100) 76 (88.4) 0 (0) 8 (9.3)     
38 Singh et al. c [60] 208 2000–2002 Hospital Borneo 208 (100) 208 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 208 (100) 82 (39.4) 106 (51) 20 (9.6)
39 Koh et al. [61] 31 1996–2001 Hospital Borneo 31 (100) 30 (96.8) 0 (0) 1 (3.2)     
40 Norhayati et al. [62] 310   Cross-sectional Peninsular 34 (11) 34 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0)     
41 Singh et al. [63] 129   Cross-sectional Borneo 36 (27.9) 31 (86.1) 0 (0) 5 (13.9) 43 (33.3) 32 (74.4) 0 (0) 11 (25.6)
42 Jamaiah et al. [64] 134 1983–1992 Hospital Peninsular 134 (100) 123 (91.8) 0 (0) 11 (8.2)     
43 Singh et al. [65] 166   Hospital and Cross-sectional Borneo 68 (41) 62 (91.2) 0 (0) 6 (8.8) 73 (44) 65 (89) 0 (0) 8 (11)
44 Sidhu et al. [66] 64 1984–1988 Hospital Peninsular 64 (100) 62 (96.9) 0 (0) 2 (3.1)     
45 Gordon et al. [67] 268   Cross-sectional Peninsular 60 (22.4) 50 (83.3) 0 (0) 10 (16.7)     
46 Lee et al. [68] 94 1986 Cross-sectional Peninsular 45 (47.9) 23 (51.1) 0 (0) 22 (48.9)     
  1. Pf = P. falciparum; Pv = P. vivax; Pm = P. malariae; Po = P. ovale and Pk = P. knowlesi
  2. aTotal of six studies has no data on period of sample collection. Some studies do not explicitly stratify the number of cases in each year
  3. bBorneo including the states of Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia
  4. cStudies with PCR diagnosis derived from a subset of microscopy positive data