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Table 1 Examples of effects of land use change on potential malaria risks

From: Achieving global malaria eradication in changing landscapes

Environmental changes References
  Increases in anopheline larval breeding sites in response to forest clearing in the Amazon [30]
  Initial decreases in vector densities followed by colonization by more efficient malaria vectors [7, 35]
  Changes in vector habitat suitability linked with forest disturbance [29, 34]
  Changes in ecological structure and biodiversity increasing or decreasing vector densities, availability of blood meals and resulting disease risks [116,117,118]
 Agricultural expansion
  Effects of irrigation systems [40, 119]
  Expansion of rubber and rice paddies associated with increases in anopheline densities [28, 36]
Socio-demographic changes
 Population at risk
  Influx of susceptible populations into endemic areas in response to increased economic opportunity [43, 120]
  Increase and movement of migrant worker populations in the Amazon and Southeast Asia [121, 122]
  Occupational changes, such as forestry and extraction activities bringing people into vector habitats [44, 47]
 Socioeconomic status
  Increased income following agricultural development leading to decrease in malaria risk [52]
  Improved housing structure due to development reducing malaria risks [51, 123]
Wildlife reservoirs
 Origin of malaria
  P. falciparum originated from non-human primates [54]
 Spatial overlap with wildlife hosts
  Increased contact between people and non-human primates hypothesised as main driver of human infections with P. knowlesi and P. cynomolgi in Asia and P. simium and P. brasilianum in South America [76, 85, 124, 125]
 Maintenance of malaria infections
  Human malaria species circulating in great apes and gorillas in West and Central Africa [55, 56]