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Table 5 Probabilistic cost-effectiveness results of the combined effect of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) on a theoretical cohort of 10,000 (A) children under five years of age and (B) individuals of all ages

From: Cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl in a high malaria transmission district of Mozambique with high access to standard insecticide-treated nets

  Theoretical cohort of children U5 Theoretical cohort of individuals of all ages
Point estimate 95% CI lower 95% CI upper Point estimate 95% CI lower 95% CI upper
Incremental costs = intervention costs—malaria cost savings
 Direct costs only 1,633,402.91 1,630,687.28 1,636,118.53 1,578,361.96 1,575,844.28 1,580,879.64
 Direct and indirect costs 1,128,662.46 1,125,185.47 1,132,139.45 1,138,624.72 1,135,000.29 1,142,249.14
Incremental effects
 Total cases averted 46,851 46,811 46,889 33,909 33,880 33,936
 Uncomplicated cases averted 46,609 46,570 46,646 33,734 33,706 33,760
 Severe cases averted 242 241 243 175 174 176
 Deaths averted 94 93 94 30 29 30
 DALYs averted 2,856.76 2,850.34 2,863.18 624.39 622.66 626.12
ICERs: incremental cost per DALY averted
 ICER—direct costs only 579.46* 577.86* 581.05* 2,578.68 2,570.55 2,586.80
 ICER—direct and indirect costs 400.32** 398.82** 401.82** 1,860.08 1,852.17 1,867.98
  1. Results from the Monte Carlo simulations with 10,000 iterations using the parameter values and distributions specified in Table 1
  2. Children U5 children under five years of age, CI  confidence interval, DALY  disability-adjusted life-year, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio
  3. *Implies that the combination of IRS with pirimiphos-methyl and pyrethroid itns is cost-effective compared to pyrethroid itns alone, according to the WHO-Choice threshold of three times the GDP per capita
  4. **Implies the strategy is highly cost-effective