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Table 1 Temporal trends in prevalence of SP resistant haplotypes from 2009 to 2018

From: Temporal evolution of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance genotypes and genetic diversity in response to a decade of increased interventions against Plasmodium falciparum in northern Ghana

Gene Haplotypea Sampling year
   2009 2010 2011 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
   % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N)
pfdhfr (N51I/C59R/S108N/I164L)
  NRNI 7.5 (9/120) 9.2 (17/184) 14.5 (8/55) 6.1 (2/33) 20.7 (67/323) 18.5 (33/178) 7.1 (65/920) 16.1 (90/560) 24.6 (79/321)
  ICNI 3.3 (4/120) 2.2 (4/184) 1.8 (1/55) 6.1 (2/33) 1.2 (4/323) 1.1 (2/178) 5.7 (52/920) 4.8 (27/560) 2.2
(7/321)
  IRNI 80 (96/120) 77.2 (142/184) 76.4 (42/55) 66.7 (23/33) 67.5 (218/323) 73.6 (131/178) 79.8 (734/920) 70.7 (396/560) 67.9 (218/321)
  NCSI 9.2 (11/120) 11.4 (21/184) 7.3 (4/55) 21.1 (7/33) 10.5 (34/323) 6.7 (12/178) 7.5 (69/920) 8.4 (47/560) 5.3 (17/321)
pfdhps (S436A[C/F/Y]/A437G/K540E/A581G/A613S)
  (A/F/Y/S)AKAS 14.2 (17/120) 19.0 (35/184) 18.2 (10/55) 6.1 (2/33) 7.1 (23/323) 3.4 (6/178) 3.4 (31/920) 4.1 (23/560) 6.9 (18/261)
  (C/S/A)GKAA 2.5 (3/120) 33.7 (62/184) 9.1 (5/55) 39.4 (13/33) 55.4 (179/323) 64.0 (114/178) 71.2 (655/920) 69.5 (389/560) 78.2 (204/261)
  AAKAA 55.0 (66/119) 22.8 (42/184) 41.8 (23/55) 21.2 (7/33) 21.7 (70/323) 7.3 (13/178) 2.2 (20/920) 9.8 (55/560) 8.4 (22/261)
  (A/S)GKAS 2.5 (3/120) 3.8 (8/184) 3.6 (2/55) 6.1 (2/33) 2.5 (8/323) 9.6 (17/178) 4.6 (42/920) 8.0 (45/540) 4.2 (11/261)
  (S/A)GEAA 0 (0/120) 0 (0/184) 0 (0/55) 3.0 (1/33) 0 (0/323) 1.7 (3/178) 1.1 (10/920) 1.3
(7/560)
0
(0/261)
  SAKAA 25.8 (31/120) 20.7 (38/184) 27.3 (15/55) 24.2 (8/33) 13.3 (43/323) 14.0 (25/178) 17.5 (161/920) 7.3 (41/560) 2.3
(6/261)
pfdhfr/pfdhpsb          
  Triple 3.5 (2/57) 0 (0/81) 0 (0/24) 0 (0/22) 5.5 (4/73) 1.4 (1/70) 1.3 (3/237) 0
(0/175)
2.8
(3/107)
  Quadruple 43.9 (25/57) 49.4 (40/81) 87.5 (21/24) 59.1 (13/22) 45.2 (33/73) 25.7 (18/70) 10.1 (24/237) 21.1 (37/175) 20.6 (22/107)
  Quintuple 52.6 (30/57) 50.6 (41/81) 12.5 (3/24) 40.9 (9/22) 49.3 (36/73) 72.9 (51/70) 88.6 (210/237) 78.9 (138/175) 76.6 (82/107)
  1. aHaplotypes derived from only pure samples. Quintuple are detected in all three studies and prevalence is much higher when heterozygous samples are included
  2. bTriple = NRNI + AAKAA; quadruple = IRNI + SGKAA or IRNI + AAKAA; quintuple = IRNI + AGKAA or IRNI + SGEAA; sextuple = IRNI + SGEGA