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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Quantification of the misidentification of Plasmodium knowlesi as Plasmodium malariae by microscopy: an analysis of 1569 P. knowlesi cases

No. Authors, year Study area (years of the survey) Study design Age range (years) Sex (male, %) Participants PCR for Plasmodium spp. Target gene Microscopy (including mixed infection) PCR (including mixed infection) No. of discordances
No. of malaria No. of P. malariae No. of P. knowlesi No. of malaria No. of P. malariae No. of P. knowlesi
1 Anderios et al., 2008 Sabah, Malaysia Retrospective cross-sectional study NS NS 31 P. malariae-positive by microscopy Nested PCR 18S rRNA 31 31 0 31 0 25 25
2 Barber et al., 2012 Sabah, Malaysia (2009–2011) Retrospective cross-sectional study P. knowlesi: 33 years, IQR 20–50 years P. knowlesi: 73% 485 malaria positive by microscopy Nested PCR 18S rRNA 485 445 0 435 4 379 339
3 Coutrier et al., 2018 Aceh, Indonesia (2014–2015) Prospective study NS NS 41 malaria positive by microscopy Nested PCR 18S rRNA 41 3 0 41 0 19 3
4 Cox-Singh et al., 2008 Sarawak, Malaysia (2001–2006) Retrospective cross-sectional study Mean 36.9, 0.2–91 years 75.8% 960 malaria positive by microscopy Nested PCR 18S rRNA 960 312 0 960 4 266 228
5 Goh et al., 2013 Sabah, Malaysia (2008–2011) Prospective study NS NS 189 patients suspected of malaria Hexaplex PCR 18S rRNA 189 49 0 178 2 42 35
6 Jongwutiwes et al., 2011 Thailand (2008–2009) Retrospective and prospective study Mean 27.4, 1–87 years 78% 3770 patients suspected of malaria Nested PCR 18S rRNA 3300 2 0 3446 8 33 1
7 Joveen-Neoh et al., 2011 Sabah, Malaysia (2010) Prospective study 11–20 years 74.5% 243 patients suspected of malaria Nested PCR 18S rRNA 83 43 0 107 0 65 43
8 Naing et al., 2011 Sabah, Malaysia (2009) Retrospective study 33 ± 18 years 73.8% 445 samples referred for PCR analysis Nested PCR NS 445 318 NS 343 2 343 316
9 Putaporntip et al., 2009 Thailand (2006–2007) Prospective study Malaria positive: mean 25.54 (1–81) Malaria positive: 2.25:1 1874 patients suspected of malaria Nested PCR 18S rRNA 1695 3 0 1751 24 10 1
10 Singh et al., 2004 Sarawak, Malaysia (2000–2002) Prospective study NS NS 208 malaria positive by microscopy Nested PCR 18S rRNA 208 141 0 208 0 120 106
11 Yusof et al., 2014 Malaysia (2012–2013) Retrospective cross-sectional study Mean 33.8 77.9% 457 malaria positive by microscopy Nested PCR 18S rRNA 457 82 182 453 1 267 73
  1. NS not specified