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Table 3 Factors associated with first malaria infection among participants enrolled in malaria incidence study on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (Cox regression, N = 240)

From: Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in 6-month to 45-year-olds on selected areas of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

Variable Crude hazard ratio (95% CI) Adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)a
Age group
 6 to 59 months 1 1
 5 to 17 years 1.21 (0.61, 2.41) 1.31 (0.63, 2.76)
 18 to 45 years 0.9 (0.43, 1.86) 1.09 (0.51, 2.33)
Sex
 Male 1 1
 Female 0.5 (0.28, 0.91)* 0.39 (0.21, 0.72)*
Area
 Area I 1 1
 Area II 0.83 (0.29, 2.37) 1.17 (0.4, 3.44)
 Area III 1.84 (0.73, 4.60) 1.85 (0.71, 4.81)
 Area IV 2.78 (1.17, 6.57)* 3.63 (1.5, 8.8)*
TBS positive before enrollmentb
 Yes 1 1
 No 0.41 (0.17, 0.97)* 0.25 (0.1, 0.68)*
Household SES
 Lower 1 1
 Lower middle 1.82 (0.84, 3.94) 3.35 (1.46, 7.68)*
 Middle 0.76 (0.33, 1.76) 1.06 (0.45, 2.52)
 Upper middle 1.03 (0.44, 2.37) 1.56 (0.66, 3.69)
 Upper 0.25 (0.07, 0.87)* 0.31 (0.09, 1.14)
  1. *Wald test p value < 0.05
  2. aAdjusted for all variables in the table
  3. bMalaria positive at screening or between screening and enrollment (within 2 months before enrolled into the study); however all participants were given presumptive treatment and retested before the day of initiation of the study