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Table 1 Metrics of the network analysis of determinants of transmission and persistence of malaria in Accra

From: Emerging properties of malaria transmission and persistence in urban Accra, Ghana: evidence from a participatory system approach

Label K C B x Kin Kout
Existence and enforcement of city planning and regulation 2 0.116 0 0.004 0 2
Adequate housing construction 2 0.119 10 0.006 1 1
Convenient waste and sewage management 2 0.119 10 0.006 1 1
Urban agriculture 1 0.111 0 0.004 0 1
Wells excavation 2 0.119 20 0.008 1 1
Number of breeding sites 6 0.128 147 0.032 5 1
More rainfall 1 0.119 0 0.004 0 1
Householders' awareness and decision-making on malaria infection risk 5 0.266 0 0.004 0 5
Hygiene and sanitation of households' compound 3 0.119 16 0.007 2 1
Household income 2 0.200 0 0.004 0 2
Temperature between 26 and 33 °C 1 0.119 0 0.004 0 1
Higher reproduction rate of female Anopheles 2 0.128 19 0.008 1 1
Number of female Anopheles 3 0.140 192 0.039 2 1
Surviving of female Anopheles 4 0.153 262 0.080 2 2
Use of insecticide in household 1 0.140 0 0.004 0 1
Insecticide resistant Anopheles strain 5 0.134 34 0.050 4 1
Pest management with pyrethroid-based insecticide in urban agriculture 1 0.124 0 0.004 0 1
Disinfection of healthcare facilities 1 0.124 0 0.004 0 1
Mosquito bites 2 0.160 246 0.038 1 1
Use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITN) 4 0.160 23 0.011 3 1
Perceived-inconvenience of ITN 1 0.145 0 0.004 0 1
Frequency and duration of nighttime activities 2 0.160 2 0.005 1 1
Use of door and windows mesh 2 0.160 2 0.005 1 1
Infectious mosquito bites 5 0.177 313 0.047 4 1
Population receiving infected bites 2 0.209 298 0.044 1 1
Malaria positive cases 7 0.255 328 0.086 4 3
Human migration 1 0.214 0 0.004 0 1
Human age category 1 0.186 0 0.004 0 1
Immune state of human host 2 0.214 15 0.008 1 1
Asymptomatic cases 1 0.000 0 0.029 1 0
Symptomatic cases 3 0.250 273 0.029 1 2
Health literacy 2 0.250 224 0.017 1 1
Visit to a healthcare facility 4 0.296 255 0.057 3 1
Enough and well trained healthcare-workers 1 0.233 0 0.004 0 1
Adherence to prescription protocol 2 0.273 9 0.008 1 1
Diagnosis (anamnesis and blood analysis) 3 0.333 239 0.060 2 1
Drug prescription 3 0.381 205 0.056 1 2
Compliance with the treatment 2 0.222 61 0.028 1 1
Satisfaction with the treatment 2 0.242 27 0.028 1 1
Trust in the healthcare system 3 0.267 47 0.043 2 1
Inadequate utilization of the medication 2 0.267 68 0.028 1 1
Increase in Plasmodium resistance to drug 4 0.296 61 0.034 2 2
Alternative medicine 2 0.000 0 0.031 2 0
Subsidy and availability on the preventive and curative malaria measures 2 0.236 0 0.004 0 2
Self-medication 3 0.250 18 0.007 2 1
  1. degree (\(K)\), in-degree \({(K}^{in})\), out-degree \({(K}^{out})\), PageRank \((x)\), closeness \((C)\), and betweenness \((B)\); Values in bold represent the higher value of centrality