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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate associations of anaemia with asymptomatic malaria using microscopy, RDT, adjusted for age, sex and altitude

From: Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria, submicroscopic parasitaemia and anaemia in Korogwe District, north-eastern Tanzania

Variable Unadjusted OR 95% CI p-values Model 1 P-values Model 2 P-values
Adjusted OR, 95% CI Adjusted OR, 95% CI
Asymptomatic based on microscopy
 Negative Ref   Ref
 Positive 1.90 (0.90–4.0) 0.09 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 0.56
Age group (yr)
 < 5 Ref   Ref   Ref  
 5–11 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.41 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.25 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.21
 12–14 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.20 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.13 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.11
 15–19 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.41 0.7 (0.4–1.5) 0.38 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.30
Sex
 Male Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Female 0.7 (0.5–1.0)*   0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.53 1.0 (0.1–1.0)* 0.04
Altitude
 High Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Low 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 00.44 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 0.40 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 0.49
Asymptomatic based on RDT
 Negative Ref Ref  
 Positive 1.9 (1.3–2.8)* 0.03 2.1 (1.3–3.2)* 0.01
  1. *p < 0.05, Model 1 included asymptomatic malaria based on microscopic results adjusted for gender, age and altitude whilst model 2 included asymptomatic malaria based on RDT adjusted for gender, age and altitude. The age groups presented here are as per the WHO haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity [17]