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Table 3 Measurement of the associations with stillbirths according to maternal characteristics, malaria risk factors, and newborn health (Model A2)

From: Causal effects on low Apgar at 5-min and stillbirth in a malaria maternal–fetal health outcome investigation: a large perinatal surveillance study in the Brazilian Amazon

  Univariable logistic regression Multivariable logistic regression
p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI
Outcome
 Stillbirth       
Maternal pregnancy and health characteristics
 Advanced age (> 35 years) or young (< 15 years) 0.016 3.2 1.24–8.24 0.11 2.9 0.8–10.6
 Number of previous deliveries (n = 1 to 4) 0.258 0.6 0.25–1.45    
 Attended ≥ 6 obstetrics consults during pregnancy < 0.001 0.1 0.04–0.3 0.041 0.19 0.04–0.93
 Diagnosed with perinatal anaemia (Hgb < 11 g/dL) 0.013 3.12 1.27–7.68 0.529 1.48 0.43–5.06
 Presented with perinatal fever < 0.001 13.3 5.5–32.3 < 0.001 16.94 4.74–60.49
 Diagnosed with malaria prior to current pregnancy 0.15 1.9 0.8–4.4    
 Diagnosed with malaria during pregnancy 0.17 2.8 0.7–12.2    
 Diagnosed with perinatal malaria 0.99 0 0, Inf    
 No malaria testing during pregnancy 0.77 0.85 0.3–2.5    
Maternal malaria risk factors
 Resides in Cruzeiro do Sul 0.026 2.78 1.1–6.8 0.682 1.3 0.38–4.48
 Resides in rural area 0.359 1.5 0.6–3.6    
 Illiterate or has secondary education as highest level 0.046 2.39 1.02–5.61 0.477 1.57 0.45–5.49
 Never used repellent in pregnancy 0.207 1.75 0.73–4.2    
 Never used a bed net during pregnancy 0.517 0.74 0.3–1.8    
 No air conditioning unit in home 0.326 2.1 0.5–8.9    
Newborn health at delivery
 Born prematurely (< 37 weeks gestational age) < 0.001 18.1 7.5–43.4 0.302 2.26 0.48–10.61
 Low birth weight at delivery (< 2500 g) < 0.001 60.6 20.3–181 0.142 4.37 0.61–31.3
 Low head circumference (< 33 cm) < 0.001 20.3 6.4–64.2 0.117 3.99 0.71–22.54
Control variable
 Haemoglobin blood test timing 0.324 1.53 0.66–3.55 0.072 3.04 0.91–10.2