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Table 1 Individual level social and demographic characteristics of study participants in two districts of Meghalaya state, India

From: Household and individual level risk factors associated with declining malaria incidence in Meghalaya, India: implications for malaria elimination in low-endemic settings

Characteristic West Jaintia Hills
(N = 1467)
West Khasi Hills
(N = 1286)
Age (years)* 22.2 (18.1) 19.2 (16.0)
Gender
 Female 855 (58.3%) 697 (54.4%)
 Male 612 (41.7%) 585 (45.6%)
Highest education of participants aged ≥ 18 years^
 No formal education 338 (45.7%) 160 (28.6%)
 Below primary (preschool/kindergarten) 74 (10.0%) 47 (8.4%)
 Primary (class V) 221 (29.9%) 104 (18.6%)
 Middle (class VIII) 48 (6.5%) 125 (22.3%)
 Secondary/matric (class X) 31 (4.2%) 64 (11.4%)
 Higher secondary (class XII) 13 (1.8%) 34 (6.1%)
 Graduate 14 (1.9%) 25 (4.5%)
 Post graduate 0 (0%) 1 (0.2%)
 Diploma 1 (0.1%) 0 (0%)
Occupation
 Cultivator 349 (23.8%) 269 (20.9%)
 Agricultural labourer 124 (8.5%) 14 (1.1%)
 Daily wage/labour 82 (5.6%) 76 (5.9%)
 Salaried service 28 (1.9%) 36 (2.8%)
 Self-employed/trade 16 (1.1%) 15 (1.2%)
 Housewife 127 (8.7%) 125 (9.7%)
 Student 473 (32.3%) 512 (39.8%)
 Child, not schooling 61 (4.2%) 28 (2.2%)
 None 206 (14.1%) 205 (15.9%)
 Other 0 (0%) 6 (0.5%)
Self-reported malaria in past 12 months 16 (1.1%) 83 (6.5%)
History of travel in last 14 days 31 (2.1%) 25 (1.9%)
Staying in field for one or more night
 Yes 116 (7.9%) 22 (1.7%)
 No 684 (46.7%) 663 (51.6%)
 Not applicable 665 (45.4%) 600 (46.7%)
Number of nights stayed in the field* 7.3 (3.0) 4.8 (1.9)
Taking ITN when staying in the field 109 (94.0%) 10 (45.5%)
Knowledge of signs and symptoms of malaria
 Fever 88 (98.9%) 315 (96.3%)
 Headache 84 (94.4%) 213 (65.3%)
 Chill 68 (76.4%) 249 (85.2%)
 Body-ache 49 (55.1%) 187 (63.8%)
Preferred healthcare service provider for malaria
 Government healthcare facility 1464 (99.8%) 1133 (88.1%)
 Private healthcare facility 3 (0.2%) 147 (11.4%)
 Traditional healer/home management 0 (0%) 4 (0.3%)
 Don’t know/other facilities 0 (0%) 2 (0.2%)
  1. *Mean (SD)
  2. ^Only the 740 adult (aged ≥ 18 years) participants from JH and 540 adult participants from KH were included in the analysis