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Table 2 Household and behavioural characteristics of study participants at Tongogara Refugee Camp, Chipinge District, Zimbabwe, 2021

From: Factors associated with a malaria outbreak at Tongogara refugee camp in Chipinge District, Zimbabwe, 2021: a case–control study

Variable Category Cases Controls p-value
   n = 80 % n = 80 %  
Presence of a stagnant water body 3 km from the home Yes 70 87 65 81 0.276
No 10 13 15 19  
Slept under a mosquito net the previous night Yes 10 13 11 14 0.815
No 70 87 69 86  
Ownership of a mosquito net in the last 6 months Yes 13 16 12 15 0.087
No 67 84 68 85  
Type of house Brick under iron 41 51 34 42  < 0.001
Brick under asbestos 18 22 4 5  
Refugee housing unit 14 18 42 53  
Mud under thatch 7 9 0 0  
Holes or open eaves in the house Yes 26 33 10 13 0.002
No 54 67 70 87  
IRS in the last 12 months Yes 68 85 70 87 0.646
No 12 15 10 13  
Outdoor activities at night Yes 48 60 23 29  < 0.001
No 32 40 57 71  
Wearing clothes that cover during outdoor activities Yes 26 32 56 70  < 0.001
No 54 68 24 30  
Use of mosquito repellents Yes 10 13 3 4 0.043
No 70 87 77 96  
Travel outside the camp (self-reported) Yes 3 4 9 11 0.086
No 77 96 71 89  
Malaria education in the last 3 months Yes 9 11 13 16 0.463
No 71 89 67 84