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  1. Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at th...

    Authors: Jennifer B Rosen, Joel G Breman, Charles R Manclark, Bruce D Meade, William E Collins, Hans O Lobel, Pierre Saliou, Jacquelin M Roberts, Pierre Campaoré and Mark A Miller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:53
  2. Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are an important method of preventing malaria. To remain effective, they need to be re-treated with pyrethroid insecticide at approximately yearly intervals. Systems for re-treat...

    Authors: Alison Yates, Raphael N'Guessan, Harparkash Kaur, Martin Akogbéto and Mark Rowland
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:52
  3. Research is an essential tool in facing the challenges of scaling up interventions and improving access to services. As in many other countries, the translation of research evidence into drug policy action in ...

    Authors: Godfrey M Mubyazi and Miguel A Gonzalez-Block
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:51
  4. Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease caused by Plasmodium infection of human red blood cells. The host-parasite co-evolutionary processes are well understood by the association of coding variations such...

    Authors: Sonali Gaikwad, Richa Ashma, Nirbhay Kumar, Rajni Trivedi and VK Kashyap
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:50
  5. The success of sterile or transgenic Anopheles for malaria control depends on their mating competitiveness within wild populations. Current evidence suggests that transgenic mosquitoes have reduced fitness. One m...

    Authors: Kija R Ng'habi, Bernadette John, Gamba Nkwengulila, Bart GJ Knols, Gerry F Killeen and Heather M Ferguson
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:49
  6. Several studies conducted in areas of medium or low malaria transmission intensity have found associations between malaria immunity and plasma antibody levels to glutamate rich protein (GLURP). This study was ...

    Authors: John PA Lusingu, Lasse S Vestergaard, Michael Alifrangis, Bruno P Mmbando, Michael Theisen, Andrew Y Kitua, Martha M Lemnge and Thor G Theander
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:48
  7. Malaria, both with or without convulsions, is a serious hardship for people living in endemic areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Community references to malaria, however, may encompass other conditions, ...

    Authors: Collins K Ahorlu, Kwadwo A Koram, Cynthia Ahorlu, Don de Savigny and Mitchell G Weiss
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:47
  8. The use of antimalarial drug combinations with artemisinin derivatives is recommended to overcome drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The fixed combination of oral artemether-lumefantrine, an artemisinin co...

    Authors: Robert Hutagalung, Lucy Paiphun, Elizabeth A Ashley, Rose McGready, Alan Brockman, Kaw L Thwai, Pratap Singhasivanon, Thomas Jelinek, Nicholas J White and François H Nosten
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:46
  9. Safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are urgently needed for the poor populations in malaria endemic countries. Methylene blue (MB) combined with chloroquine (CQ) has bee...

    Authors: Peter E Meissner, Germain Mandi, Steffen Witte, Boubacar Coulibaly, Ulrich Mansmann, Jens Rengelshausen, Wolfgang Schiek, Albrecht Jahn, Mamadou Sanon, Théophile Tapsoba, Ingeborg Walter-Sack, Gerd Mikus, Jürgen Burhenne, Klaus-Dieter Riedel, Heiner Schirmer, Bocar Kouyaté…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:45
  10. The use of transgenic mosquitoes with parasite inhibiting genes has been proposed as an integral strategy to control malaria transmission. However, release of exotic transgenic mosquitoes will bring in novel a...

    Authors: David M Menge, Tom Guda, Daibin Zhong, Aditi Pai, Goufa Zhou, John C Beier, Louis Gouagna and Guiyun Yan
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:44
  11. Rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa has a major impact on malaria epidemiology. While much is known about malaria in rural areas in Burkina Faso, the urban situation is less well understood.

    Authors: Shr-Jie Wang, Christian Lengeler, Thomas A Smith, Penelope Vounatsou, Diallo A Diadie, Xavier Pritroipa, Natalie Convelbo, Mathieu Kientga and Marcel Tanner
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:43
  12. Both chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) are failing drugs in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Previous findings suggest an association between resistance to CQ and to SP in vivo, in vitro, and on the ...

    Authors: Frank P Mockenhaupt, J Teun Bousema, Teunis A Eggelte, Stephan Ehrhardt, Rowland N Otchwemah, Robert W Sauerwein and Ulrich Bienzle
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:42
  13. Early diagnosis and effective treatment with an appropriate drug form the main components of the World Health Organization's strategy to reduce malaria related mortality. The few available drugs might be safeg...

    Authors: Sakina B Elamin, Elfatih M Malik, Tarig Abdelgadir, Ammar H Khamiss, Mamoun M Mohammed, Elderderi S Ahmed and Ishag Adam
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:41
  14. The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of ...

    Authors: Shr-Jie Wang, Christian Lengeler, Thomas A Smith, Penelope Vounatsou, Guéladio Cissé, Diadie A Diallo, Martin Akogbeto, Deo Mtasiwa, Awash Teklehaimanot and Marcel Tanner
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:40
  15. Although maternal anaemia often stems from malaria infection during pregnancy, its effects on foetal haemoglobin levels are not straightforward. Lower-than-expected cord haemoglobin values in malarious versus ...

    Authors: Elizabeth T Abrams, Jesse J Kwiek, Victor Mwapasa, Deborah D Kamwendo, Eyob Tadesse, Valentino M Lema, Malcolm E Molyneux, Stephen J Rogerson and Steven R Meshnick
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:39
  16. IL-1β and IL-1RA levels are higher in the serum of cerebral malaria patients than in patients with mild malaria. Recently, the level of IL1B expression was reported to be influenced by a polymorphism in the promo...

    Authors: Jun Ohashi, Izumi Naka, Akihiro Doi, Jintana Patarapotikul, Hathairad Hananantachai, Noppadon Tangpukdee, Sornchai Looareesuwan and Katsushi Tokunaga
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:38
  17. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality, but use is limited. A barrier to ITN use may be lack of knowledge regarding malaria transmission and prevention. This study is a controll...

    Authors: Michelle Rhee, Mahamadou Sissoko, Sharon Perry, Willi McFarland, Julie Parsonnet and Ogobara Doumbo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:35
  18. Malaria is the largest cause of health services attendance, hospital admissions and child deaths in Tanzania. At the Abuja Summit in April 2000 Tanzania committed itself to protect 60% of its population at hig...

    Authors: Stephen M Magesa, Christian Lengeler, Don deSavigny, Jane E Miller, Ritha JA Njau, Karen Kramer, Andrew Kitua and Alex Mwita
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:34
  19. Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus

    Authors: Kaliannagoun Krishnamoorthy, Purushothaman Jambulingam, R Natarajan, AN Shriram, Pradeep K Das and SC Sehgal
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:32
  20. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) is a key intervention in the national strategy for malaria control in Tanzania. SP, the current drug of choice, is recommended to be adminis...

    Authors: Godfrey Mubyazi, Paul Bloch, Mathias Kamugisha, Andrew Kitua and Jasper Ijumba
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:31
  21. The coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remains low despite existing distribution strategies, hence, it was important to assess consumers' preferences for distribution of ITNs, as well as their percept...

    Authors: Obinna Onwujekwe, Benjamin Uzochukwu, Nkoli Ezumah and Elvis Shu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:29
  22. Malaria has always been a major public health problem in Yemen. Several studies in developing countries have demonstrated ineffective and poor quality drugs including antimalarials. Therefore, quality assessme...

    Authors: Ahmed Abdo-Rabbo, Amal Bassili and Hoda Atta
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:28
  23. There is a low incidence of malaria in Iquitos, Peru, suburbs detected by passive case-detection. This low incidence might be attributable to infections clustered in some households/regions and/or undetected a...

    Authors: OraLee Branch, W Martin Casapia, Dionicia V Gamboa, Jean N Hernandez, Freddy F Alava, Norma Roncal, Eugenia Alvarez, Enrique J Perez and Eduardo Gotuzzo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:27
  24. Plasmodium falciparum outbreaks can occur in the coastal area of French Guiana, where the population is essentially non-immune. Two sporadic outbreaks were observed, including one with severe malaria cases. To ch...

    Authors: Eric Legrand, Beatrice Volney, Anne Lavergne, Caroline Tournegros, Loïc Florent, Doris Accrombessi, Micheline Guillotte, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon and Philippe Esterre
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:26
  25. Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethr...

    Authors: Alex N Asidi, Raphael N' Guessan, Alphonsine A Koffi, Christopher F Curtis, Jean-Marc Hougard, Fabrice Chandre, Vincent Corbel, Frédéric Darriet, Morteza Zaim and Mark W Rowland
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:25
  26. Mosquitoes commute between blood-meal hosts and water. Thus, heterogeneity in human biting reflects underlying spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and suitability of larval habitat as well as inherent di...

    Authors: Arnaud Le Menach, F Ellis McKenzie, Antoine Flahault and David L Smith
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:23
  27. Parasites causing severe malaria in non-immune patients express a restricted subset of variant surface antigens (VSA), which are better recognized by immune sera than VSA expressed during non-severe disease in...

    Authors: Thomas Lavstsen, Pamela Magistrado, Cornelus C Hermsen, Ali Salanti, Anja TR Jensen, Robert Sauerwein, Lars Hviid, Thor G Theander and Trine Staalsoe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:21
  28. Plasmodium vivax is the second most prevalent malaria parasite affecting more than 75 million people each year, mostly in South America and Asia. In addition to major morbidity this parasite is associated with re...

    Authors: Mallika Imwong, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Anne Charlotte Grüner, Laurent Rénia, Frank Letourneur, Sornchai Looareesuwan, Nicholas J White and Georges Snounou
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:20
  29. A single base pair mutation in the sodium channel confers knock-down resistance to pyrethroids in many insect species. Its occurrence in Anopheles mosquitoes may have important implications for malaria vector con...

    Authors: Amy Lynd, Hilary Ranson, P J McCall, Nadine P Randle, William C Black IV, Edward D Walker and Martin J Donnelly
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:16
  30. The treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan has been in process of change since 2003. Preceding the change, this study aimed to determine which artemisinin-based combination therapies is more effecti...

    Authors: Ingrid van den Broek, Ribka Amsalu, Manica Balasegaram, Pamela Hepple, Engudaye Alemu, El Badri Hussein, Muhammed Al-Faith, Jacqui Montgomery and Francesco Checchi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:14
  31. There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that ma...

    Authors: Martin J Donnelly, PJ McCall, Christian Lengeler, Imelda Bates, Umberto D'Alessandro, Guy Barnish, Flemming Konradsen, Eveline Klinkenberg, Harold Townson, Jean-Francois Trape, Ian M Hastings and Clifford Mutero
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:12
  32. Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi can be considered as a rodent model of human malaria parasites in the genetic analysis of important characters such as drug resistance and immunity. Despite the availability of some g...

    Authors: Axel Martinelli, Paul Hunt, Richard Fawcett, Pedro VL Cravo, David Walliker and Richard Carter
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:11
  33. Malaria takes a heavy toll in Niger, one of the world's poorest countries. Previous evaluations conducted in the context of the strategy for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, showed that 84% of s...

    Authors: Françoise Gay-Andrieu, Eric Adehossi, Véronique Lacroix, Moussa Gagara, Maman Laminou Ibrahim, Hama Kourna and Hamadou Boureima
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:10
  34. Three cases of nosocomial malaria are reported from patients of the Internal Medicine Ward of a tertiary University teaching hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Epidemiological research, based on entomological cap...

    Authors: Lina González, Jesus Ochoa, Liliana Franco, Marta Arroyave, Eliana Restrepo, Silvia Blair and Amanda Maestre
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:9
  35. Following the tsunami, a detailed overview of the area specific transmission levels is essential in assessing the risk of malaria in Sri Lanka. Recent information on vector insecticide resistance, parasite dru...

    Authors: Olivier JT Briët, Gawrie NL Galappaththy, Flemming Konradsen, Priyanie H Amerasinghe and Felix P Amerasinghe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:8
  36. Mosquitoes sampling is an important component in malaria control. However, most of the methods used have several shortcomings and hence there is a need to develop and calibrate new methods. The Mbita trap for ...

    Authors: Evan M Mathenge, Gedion O Misiani, David O Oulo, Lucy W Irungu, Paul N Ndegwa, Tom A Smith, Gerry F Killeen and Bart GJ Knols
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:7
  37. Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains l...

    Authors: Emily Grover-Kopec, Mika Kawano, Robert W Klaver, Benno Blumenthal, Pietro Ceccato and Stephen J Connor
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:6
  38. Polyclonal B-cell activation is well known to occur in Plasmodium infections, but its role in pathogenesis or protection remains unclear. However, protective properties of natural antibodies have previously been ...

    Authors: Constantin Fesel, Luis F Goulart, Adolfo Silva Neto, Alysson Coelho, Cor Jesus F Fontes, Erika M Braga and Nelson M Vaz
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:5
  39. By 2030, more than 50% of the African population will live in urban areas. Controlling malaria reduces the disease burden and further improves economic development. As a complement to treated nets and prompt a...

    Authors: Michael A Sattler, Deo Mtasiwa, Michael Kiama, Zul Premji, Marcel Tanner, Gerry F Killeen and Christian Lengeler
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:4
  40. Most studies on the resistance of mosquitoes to their malaria parasites focus on the response of a mosquito line or colony against a single parasite genotype. In natural situations, however, it may be expected...

    Authors: Louis Lambrechts, Jean Halbert, Patrick Durand, Louis C Gouagna and Jacob C Koella
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:3

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