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  1. Malaria microscopy remains the reference standard for malaria diagnosis in clinical trials (drug and vaccine), new diagnostic evaluation, as well as in clinical care in much of the world today. It is known tha...

    Authors: Colin Ohrt, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Shon Remich, Peter McEvoy, Bernhards Ogutu, Ramadan Mtalib and James Sande Odera
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:22
  2. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are increasingly being considered for routine use in Africa. However, many RDTs are available and selecting the ideal test for a particular setting is challenging. The...

    Authors: Yoel Lubell, Heidi Hopkins, Christopher JM Whitty, Sarah G Staedke and Anne Mills
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:21
  3. As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed.

    Authors: Ulrike Fillinger, Khadija Kannady, George William, Michael J Vanek, Stefan Dongus, Dickson Nyika, Yvonne Geissbühler, Prosper P Chaki, Nico J Govella, Evan M Mathenge, Burton H Singer, Hassan Mshinda, Steven W Lindsay, Marcel Tanner, Deo Mtasiwa, Marcia C de Castro…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:20
  4. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exploits antigenic diversity and within-host antigenic variation to evade the host's immune system. Of particular importance are the highly polymorphic var genes t...

    Authors: Mario Recker, Nimalan Arinaminpathy and Caroline O Buckee
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:18
  5. Individuals living in malaria endemic areas generally harbour multiple parasite strains. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) can be an indicator of immune status. However, whether this is good or bad for the devel...

    Authors: Manijeh Vafa, Marita Troye-Blomberg, Judith Anchang, André Garcia and Florence Migot-Nabias
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:17
  6. Artesunate plus amodiaquine is a coblistered ACT, given as a single daily intake. It has been suggested that, in view of the number of tablets to be taken (particularly in adults), it may be possible to improv...

    Authors: Jean Louis A Ndiaye, Babacar Faye, Amadou M Diouf, Thomas Kuété, Moustapha Cisse, Papa A Seck, Phillipe Brasseur, Albert Same-Ekobo, Valerie Lameyre and Oumar Gaye
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:16
  7. Malaria is a leading cause of death in children below five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. All-cause and malaria-specific mortality rates for children under-five years old in a mesoendemic malaria area (Th...

    Authors: Robert P Ndugwa, Heribert Ramroth, Olaf Müller, Momodou Jasseh, Ali Sié, Bocar Kouyaté, Brian Greenwood and Heiko Becher
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:15
  8. Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells is mediated by var gene-encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 and host receptor preference depends in most cases on which of the 50–6...

    Authors: Uta Gölnitz, Letusa Albrecht and Gerhard Wunderlich
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:14
  9. Susceptibility/resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been correlated with polymorphisms in more than 30 human genes with most association analyses having been carried out on patients from Africa and sou...

    Authors: Swapnil Sinha, Shrawan K Mishra, Shweta Sharma, Phani K Patibandla, Prashant K Mallick, Surya K Sharma, Sanjib Mohanty, Sudhanshu S Pati, Saroj K Mishra, Bheshaj K Ramteke, RM Bhatt, Hema Joshi, Aditya P Dash, Ramesh C Ahuja, Shally Awasthi, Vimala Venkatesh…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:13
  10. The distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in Vietnam was examined, with a particular interest for the two sibling species of the Anopheles minimus complex (Cellia: Myzomyia), An. minimus and Anopheles harrisoni, ...

    Authors: Claire Garros, Cam Van Nguyen, Ho Dinh Trung, Wim Van Bortel, Marc Coosemans and Sylvie Manguin
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:11
  11. Pregnant women develop protective anti-VSA IgG1 and IgG3 when infected by Plasmodium falciparum. The major target of IgG from serum of infected pregnant women is VAR2CSA.

    Authors: Juliette Guitard, Gilles Cottrell, Nellie Moulopo Magnouha, Ali Salanti, Tengfei Li, Sokhna Sow, Philippe Deloron and Nicaise Tuikue Ndam
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:10
  12. The Kilombero Valley is a highly malaria-endemic agricultural area in south-eastern Tanzania. Seasonal flooding of the valley is favourable to malaria transmission. During the farming season, many households m...

    Authors: Manuel W Hetzel, Sandra Alba, Mariette Fankhauser, Iddy Mayumana, Christian Lengeler, Brigit Obrist, Rose Nathan, Ahmed M Makemba, Christopher Mshana, Alexander Schulze and Hassan Mshinda
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:7
  13. The Home Management of Malaria (HMM) strategy was developed using chloroquine, a now obsolete drug, which has been replaced by artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in health facility settings. Incorpora...

    Authors: Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi, Edmund N Browne, Bertha Garshong, Fred Bateganya, Bidemi Yusuf, Peter Agyei-Baffour, Leticia Doamekpor, Andrew Balyeku, Kaendi Munguti, Simon Cousens and Franco Pagnoni
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:6
  14. Equitable improvement of treatment-seeking for malaria will depend partly on how different socio-economic groups perceive the ease of accessing and utilizing malaria treatment services from different healthcar...

    Authors: Obinna Onwujekwe, Benjamin Uzochukwu, Soludo Eze, Eric Obikeze, Chijioke Okoli and Ogbonnia Ochonma
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:5
  15. The development of antimalarial drug resistance has led to increasing calls for the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, little evidence is available on the full costs associat...

    Authors: Joseph D Njau, Catherine A Goodman, S Patrick Kachur, Jo Mulligan, John S Munkondya, Naiman Mchomvu, Salim Abdulla, Peter Bloland and Anne Mills
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:4
  16. Cerebral malaria (CM) is an acute encephalopathy with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes and localized ischaemia. In children CM induces cognitive impairment in abo...

    Authors: Lothar Wiese, Casper Hempel, Milena Penkowa, Nikolai Kirkby and Jørgen AL Kurtzhals
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:3
  17. In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used...

    Authors: Matthew J Kirby, Clare Green, Paul M Milligan, Charalambos Sismanidis, Momadou Jasseh, David J Conway and Steven W Lindsay
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:2
  18. The protection afforded by human erythrocyte polymorphisms against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has been proposed to be due to reduced ability of the parasite to invade or develop in erythrocytes....

    Authors: Freya JI Fowkes, Pascal Michon, Lynn Pilling, Ruth M Ripley, Livingstone Tavul, Heather J Imrie, Caira M Woods, Charles S Mgone, Adrian JF Luty and Karen P Day
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2008 7:1
  19. Benin has recently shifted its national antimalarial drug policy from monotherapies to combinations containing artemisinin derivatives. When this decision was taken, the available information on alternatives t...

    Authors: Alain Nahum, Annette Erhart, Dorothée Gazard, Carine Agbowai, Chantal Van Overmeir, Harry van Loen, Joris Menten, Martin Akogbeto, Marc Coosemans, Achille Massougbodji and Umberto D'Alessandro
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:170
  20. Malaria fever is a common medical presentation and diagnosis in Malawi. The national malaria policy supports self-diagnosis and self-medication for uncomplicated malaria with first line anti-malaria drugs. Whi...

    Authors: Adamson S Muula, Emmanuel Rudatsikira, Seter Siziya and Ronald H Mataya
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:168
  21. Duffy blood group polymorphisms are important in areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates, because this molecule acts as a receptor for this protozoan. In the present study, Duffy blood group genotyping in P. vi...

    Authors: Carlos E Cavasini, Luiz C de Mattos, Álvaro AR D'Almeida Couto, Vanja SC D'Almeida Couto, Yuri Gollino, Laurence J Moretti, Cláudia R Bonini-Domingos, Andréa RB Rossit, Lilian Castilho and Ricardo LD Machado
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:167
  22. It has been recently reported that the standard threefold conversion from haematocrit to haemoglobin underestimates the prevalence of anaemia and low levels of haemoglobin in children living in areas endemic for

    Authors: Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, Elia Sánchez, Melissa Arria, Miguel Vargas, Carmelina Piccolo, Rosa Colina and Carlos Franco-Paredes
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:166
  23. Severe anaemia (SA), intravascular haemolysis (IVH) and respiratory distress (RD) are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malari...

    Authors: Gideon K Helegbe, Bamenla Q Goka, Joergen AL Kurtzhals, Michael M Addae, Edwin Ollaga, John KA Tetteh, Daniel Dodoo, Michael F Ofori, George Obeng-Adjei, Kenji Hirayama, Gordon A Awandare and Bartholomew D Akanmori
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:165
  24. The antimalarial drug atovaquone specifically targets Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome b (Pfcytb), a mitochondrial gene with uniparental inheritance. Cases of resistance to atovaquone associated with mutant Pfcyt...

    Authors: Marie-Thérèse Ekala, Nimol Khim, Eric Legrand, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Ronan Jambou, Thierry Fandeur, Didier Menard, Serge-Brice Assi, Marie-Claire Henry, Christophe Rogier, Christiane Bouchier and Odile Mercereau-Puijalon
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:164
  25. Intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment in infants (IPTi) is currently evaluated as a malaria control strategy. Among the factors influencing the extent of protection that is provided by IPTi are the tr...

    Authors: Robin Kobbe, Samuel Adjei, Christina Kreuzberg, Benno Kreuels, Benedicta Thompson, Peter A Thompson, Florian Marks, Wibke Busch, Meral Tosun, Nadine Schreiber, Ernest Opoku, Ohene Adjei, Christian G Meyer and Juergen May
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:163
  26. Malaria is a significant public health problem in Tanzania. Approximately 16 million malaria cases are reported every year and 100,000 to 125,000 deaths occur. Although most of Tanzania is endemic to malaria, ...

    Authors: Anne E Jones, Ulrika Uddenfeldt Wort, Andrew P Morse, Ian M Hastings and Alexandre S Gagnon
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:162
  27. The development of acquired protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection in young African children is considered in the context of three current strategies for malaria prevention: insecticide-impregnate...

    Authors: Colin J Sutherland, Christopher J Drakeley and David Schellenberg
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:161
  28. Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophyl...

    Authors: Valérie Briand, Gilles Cottrell, Achille Massougbodji and Michel Cot
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:160
  29. The emergence of Anopheles populations capable of withstanding lethal doses of insecticides has weakened the efficacy of most insecticide based strategies of vector control and, has highlighted the need for furth...

    Authors: Rousseau F Djouaka, Adekunle A Bakare, Honore S Bankole, Julien MC Doannio, Ousmane N Coulibaly, Hortense Kossou, Manuele Tamo, Harcourt I Basene, OK Popoola and Martin C Akogbeto
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:159
  30. Prevention of malaria epidemics is a priority for African countries. The 2000 malaria epidemic in Burundi prompted the government to implement measures for preventing future outbreaks. Case management with art...

    Authors: Natacha Protopopoff, Wim Van Bortel, Tanguy Marcotty, Michel Van Herp, Peter Maes, Dismas Baza, Umberto D'Alessandro and Marc Coosemans
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:158
  31. There have been reported cases of host-switching in avian and lizard species of Plasmodium (Apicomplexa, Haemosporidia), as well as in those infecting different primate species. However, no evidence has previousl...

    Authors: Linda Duval, Vincent Robert, Gabor Csorba, Alexandre Hassanin, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Joe Walston, Thy Nhim, Steve M Goodman and Frédéric Ariey
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:157
  32. The susceptibility of microbes such as Plasmodium falciparum to drugs is measured in vitro as the concentration of the drug achieving 50% of maximum effect (IC50); values from a population are summarized as geome...

    Authors: Michel Vaillant and Piero Olliaro
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:156
  33. The Anopheles gambiae sensu lato species complex comprises seven sibling species of mosquitoes that are morphologically indistinguishable. Rapid identification of the two main species which vector malaria, Anophe...

    Authors: Chris Bass, Martin S Williamson, Craig S Wilding, Martin J Donnelly and Linda M Field
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:155
  34. The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. The complete AMA1 protein is comprised of three domains where domain I exhibits high sequence polymorphis...

    Authors: Sheena Garg, Mohammad T Alam, Manoj K Das, Vas Dev, Ashwani Kumar, Aditya P Dash and Yagya D Sharma
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:154
  35. In malaria endemic areas children may recover from malaria after chemotherapy in spite of harbouring genotypically drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This phenomenon suggests that there is a synergy between dr...

    Authors: Anders Enevold, Watoky MMM Nkya, Michael Theisen, Lasse S Vestergaard, Anja TR Jensen, Trine Staalsoe, Thor G Theander, Ib C Bygbjerg and Michael Alifrangis
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:153
  36. Quinine injection is the reference treatment for malaria when oral administration is impossible. Quinine can also be administered by the intra-rectal route and, over the last ten years, a series of studies hav...

    Authors: Jean Louis A Ndiaye, Roger C Tine, Babacar Faye, El Hadj Lamine Dieye, Pape Amadou Diack, Valérie Lameyre, Oumar Gaye and Husseyn Dembel Sow
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:152
  37. Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and villa...

    Authors: Jennifer Luchavez, Ma Eichelle Lintag, Mary Coll-Black, Fred Baik and David Bell
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:149
  38. This work was carried out to assess the patterns and prevalence of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran.

    Authors: Sedigheh Zakeri, Mandana Afsharpad, Ahmad Raeisi and Navid Dinparast Djadid
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:148
  39. Plasmodium falciparum can cause a diffuse encephalopathy known as cerebral malaria (CM), a major contributor to malaria associated mortality. Despite treatment, mortality due to CM can be as high as 30% while 10%...

    Authors: Henry B Armah, Nana O Wilson, Bismark Y Sarfo, Michael D Powell, Vincent C Bond, Winston Anderson, Andrew A Adjei, Richard K Gyasi, Yao Tettey, Edwin K Wiredu, Jon Eric Tongren, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar and Jonathan K Stiles
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:147
  40. Tanzania switched the antimalarial first line to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001 from ineffective chloroquine (CQ). By 2003 higher levels of SP resistance were recorded, prompting an urgent need for re...

    Authors: Abdunoor M Kabanywanyi, Alex Mwita, Deborah Sumari, Renata Mandike, Kefas Mugittu and Salim Abdulla
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:146
  41. Formal checks of participant understanding are now widely recommended to improve informed consent processes. However, the views of the participants these assessments are designed to protect are rarely consider...

    Authors: Sassy Molyneux, Caroline Gikonyo, Vicki Marsh and Philip Bejon
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:145
  42. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has been adopted as policy by many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on the post-implementation effectivene...

    Authors: Lena Hommerich, Christa von Oertzen, George Bedu-Addo, Ville Holmberg, Patrick A Acquah, Teunis A Eggelte, Ulrich Bienzle and Frank P Mockenhaupt
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:144
  43. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) has again become popular for malaria control in Africa. This combined with the affirmation by WHO that DDT is appropriate for use in the absence of longer lasting insecticide for...

    Authors: Sonia LR Casimiro, Janet Hemingway, Brian L Sharp and Michael Coleman
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2007 6:142

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