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Table 2 Potential sustainability of transmission blocking strategies in malaria control, elimination and eradication programmes

From: Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications






Prevention of mosquito bites

ITNs/LLINs[1, 10, 11]

Cheap and easy to implement

Only offers protection during sleeping time

Mosquitoes can still transmit malaria before sleeping time



Effective in preventing bites

Short residual efficacy, strong smell, irritating to the skin

Does not reduce vector populations; mosquitoes will simply migrate to areas where repellents are not in use



Safe for humans and environment, cheap

Chemicals that attract have not been fully isolated

Very promising technique


House design[29]

Very effective and cheap

Closing up eaves increases indoor temperatures

Does not reduce vector populations, but worked well for Europe and North America

Killing of mosquitoes after they have bitten

IRS[1, 12]

Breaks transmission cycle

Too much reliance on DDT; dusting of sprayed insecticides a problem, labour-intensive

Residual efficacy limited to at most one season


ITWL[30, 31]

Similar to IRS but eliminates dusting and short residual efficacy of insecticides

User acceptability may be a challenge

Emerging polymer technology will eliminate the need to spray chemicals


IRS/ITWL with natural insecticides[32, 33]

Low mammalian toxicity

Short residual efficacy

Pyrethrin is the most effective insecticide