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Table 2 Potential sustainability of transmission blocking strategies in malaria control, elimination and eradication programmes

From: Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

  Subgroup Advantages Disadvantages Sustainability
Prevention of mosquito bites ITNs/LLINs[1, 10, 11] Cheap and easy to implement Only offers protection during sleeping time Mosquitoes can still transmit malaria before sleeping time
  Repellents[27] Effective in preventing bites Short residual efficacy, strong smell, irritating to the skin Does not reduce vector populations; mosquitoes will simply migrate to areas where repellents are not in use
  Attractants[28] Safe for humans and environment, cheap Chemicals that attract have not been fully isolated Very promising technique
  House design[29] Very effective and cheap Closing up eaves increases indoor temperatures Does not reduce vector populations, but worked well for Europe and North America
Killing of mosquitoes after they have bitten IRS[1, 12] Breaks transmission cycle Too much reliance on DDT; dusting of sprayed insecticides a problem, labour-intensive Residual efficacy limited to at most one season
  ITWL[30, 31] Similar to IRS but eliminates dusting and short residual efficacy of insecticides User acceptability may be a challenge Emerging polymer technology will eliminate the need to spray chemicals
  IRS/ITWL with natural insecticides[32, 33] Low mammalian toxicity Short residual efficacy Pyrethrin is the most effective insecticide