Skip to main content

Volume 11 Supplement 1

Challenges in malaria research

  • Poster presentation
  • Open access
  • Published:

The longevity of Anopheles sundaicus in a small area: Nongsa Pantai Villages, Batam City, Indonesia


Mosquito lifespan is one component of the lifetime transmission potential of an individual mosquito. The length of life or lifespan (longevity) of an adult Anopheles may affect its power of transmitting malaria [1]. This study was to analyze the longevity of Anopheles sundaicus in small area, Nongsa Patai Village, Batam City, Indonesia.


Research used time trend design which investigated within 3-4 months (July-October) in Nongsa Pantai Sub-villages, Nongsa Pantai Village, Batam City, Indonesia. The estimation of An. sundaicus’s longevity used a formula based on the Parous Rate and its gonothropic cycle, that is the duration of time the mosquito matures its eggs [2]. The gonothropic cycle of An. sundaicus is 3 days.


The life span (longevity) of An. sundaicus in Nongsa Pantai Village ranged from 7.22 to 9.39 with 8.39 in average as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 The estimation of longevity of An. sundaicus in Nongsa Pantai Village, Batam City, Riau Islands Province during July-October

Anophelines go through four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult The first three stages are aquatic and last 5-14 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature. The female Anopheles is not immediately infective after taking a blood meal and the parasite requires a period of time within the mosquito for its development to an infective stage. The period is termed the extrinsic incubation period [3]. A mosquito needs at least two feedings to complete one transmission cycle [4]. This parameter is strongly dependent on actual air average temperature. It may range from 8 days at 31°C to 22 days at 20°C (the mean value commonly used reaches 15 days). In Berlin, [5] probable extrinsic incubation time 21-24 days calculated for P. falciparum[2]. Theoretically, the time required for malaria transmission is at least 13-24 days under control of local temperature and humidity. That can be described as follows: 4-14 day for development from egg to pupae, and the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) ranged 8-10 days assuming the mosquito takes a blood meal directly from an infected person. The longevity of An. sundaicus in this area might transmit malaria when the longevity within the 4 month period ranged from 8 days to 10 days and might be the mosquitoes died because of insecticide residual spraying as a vectors control applied.


The longevity of An. sundaicus in coastal area Nongsa Pantai was below the minimum range for the completed life cycle and extrinsic incubation period (EIP).


  1. Smith DL, McKenzie FE: Statics and dynamics of malaria infection in Anopheles. Malaria Journal. 2004, 3: 13-10.1186/1475-2875-3-13. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-3-13

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Davidson G: Estimation of the survival-rate of anopheline mosquitoes in nature. Nature. 1954, 174 (4434): 792-793. 10.1038/174792a0.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Zhou SS, Huang F, Wang JJ: Geographical, meteorological and vectorial factors related to malaria re-emergence in Huang-Huai River of central China. Malar J. 2010, 9: 337-10.1186/1475-2875-9-337. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-9-337

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Kiszewski A, Mellinger A, Spielman A: A global index representing the stability of malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004, 70 (5): 486-498.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Zoller T, Naucke T, May J: Malaria transmission in non-endemic areas: case report, review of the literature and implications for public health management. Malar J. 2009, 8: 71-10.1186/1475-2875-8-71. 20

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Susanna, D., Eryando, T. The longevity of Anopheles sundaicus in a small area: Nongsa Pantai Villages, Batam City, Indonesia. Malar J 11 (Suppl 1), P93 (2012).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI: