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Table 1 Summary of pharmacognosy studies

From: Malaria in South America: a drug discovery perspective

Compound Authors Plant with the lowest IC50 Type IC50(P. falciparum strain)
1 Bravo et al.[34] Bowdichia virgiloides Extracts 1.0 μg/mL
Isolated substances 5 μg/mL (F32 and Indo)
- Deharo et al.[35] Bowdichia virgiloides Extracts 1 μg/mL (F32)
2 da Silva Filho et al.[36] Baccharis dracunculifolia Extracts 13 μg/mL
Isolated substances 0.8 μg/mL (W2 e D6)
3 de Andrade-Neto et al.[37] Picrolemma spruce Isolated substances 0.002 μM (K1)
4 de Andrade-Neto et al.[38] Holostylis reniformis Isolated substances 0.20 μM (field isolate)
- Kayano et al.[39] Caesalpina pluviosa Extracts 0.59 μg/mL (3D7)
5 Rocha e Silva et al.[40] Piper peltatum Isolated substances 0.05–2.11 μg/mL (M1)
5 Pinto et al.[41] Pothomorphe peltata Isolated substances 0.67 μM (K1)
- Garavito et al.[42] Remijia peruviana Extracts 0.85 μg/mL (FcB2)
- Debenedetti et al.[43] Buddleja globosa Extracts 8.9 μg/mL (K1)
- Baelmans et al.[44] Caesalpina pluviosa Extracts 8 μg/mL (D2)
- Flores et al.[45] Caesalpina pluviosa Extracts 3.4 μg/mL
Isolated substances Inactive (F32)
- Ibáñez-Calero et al.[46] Rumex obtusifolius Isolated substances 71 μg/mL i
- Muñoz et al.[47] Sparanttanthelium amazonum Extracts 2 μg/mL (F32)
- Muñoz et al.[48] Swietenia macrophylla Extracts 73% ii
- Muñoz et al.[49] Tripodanthus acutifolis Extracts 98% iii
- Costa et al.[50] Montrichardia linifera Extracts 11.7 μg/mL (W2)
- da Silva Filho et al.[51] Nectandra megapotamica Extracts 28 μg/mL
Isolated substances 3.8 μg/mL (D6)
- de Andrade-Neto et al.[52] Bidens pilosa Extracts 3.1 μg/mL (D6)
- de Andrade-Neto et al.[53] Remijia ferruginea Extracts 48% iv
- de Mesquita et al.[54] Matayba guianensis Isolated substances 2.5 μg/mL (FcB1)
- Dolabela et al.[55] Esenbeckia febrifuga Extracts 15.5 μg/mL
Isolated substances 75.3 μg/mL (W2)
- Estevam et al.[56] Ouratea nitida Extracts 51.04% v
- Fischer et al.[57] Xylopia emarginata Extracts 3.3 μg/mL (PA)
- Morais et al.[58] Pentacalia desiderabilis Isolated substances 7.82 μg/mL (K1)
- Oliveira et al.[59] Bidens pilosa Extracts 38% vi
- et al.[60] Physalis angulata Isolated substances 2.2 μM (W2)
- Uchôa et al.[61] Cecropia pachystachya Extracts 66% 4
Isolated substances 58% vii
- Loyola et al.[62] Azorella compacta Isolated substances 60% viii
- Pabón et al.[63] Solanum nudum Isolated substances 21 μM (FcB2)
- Céline et al.[64] Siparuna aspera Extracts 6.4 μg/mL (FCR-3)
- Ruiz et al.[65] Minquartia guianensis Extracts 4.2 μg/mL (FCR-3)
  1. i Inhibition of biocrystallization of ferriprotoporphyrin IX.
  2. ii Percentage of inhibition of parasite growing (dose: 250 mg/kg).
  3. iii Percentage of inhibition of parasite growing (at 10 μg/mL).
  4. iv Reduction of parasitaemia (dose: 1000 mg/kg).
  5. v Activity tested against Plasmodium berghei in mice (dose: 1000 mg/kg).
  6. vi Reduction of parasitaemia at day 5 (dose: 250 mg/kg).
  7. vii Percentage inhibition of parasitaemia in relation to untreated infected mice on day 8 after malaria infection (doses: 250 and 15 mg/kg respectively).
  8. viii Activity in mice measured by the growth of inhibition (dose: 10 mg/kg/day).