- Open Access
Water vapour is a pre-oviposition attractant for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto
© Okal et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 10 July 2013
- Accepted: 24 September 2013
- Published: 11 October 2013
To date no semiochemicals affecting the pre-oviposition behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato have been described. Water vapour must be the major chemical signal emanating from a potential larval habitat, and although one might expect that gravid An. gambiae s.l. detect and respond to water vapour in their search for an aquatic habitat, this has never been experimentally confirmed for this species. This study aimed to investigate the role of relative humidity or water vapour as a general cue for inducing gravid An. gambiae sensu stricto to make orientated movements towards the source.
Three experiments were carried out with insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. One with unfed females and two with gravid females during their peak oviposition time in the early evening. First, unfed females and gravid females were tested separately in still air where a humidity difference was established between opposite ends of a WHO bioassay tube and mosquitoes released individually in the centre of the tube. Movement of mosquitoes to either low or high humidity was recorded. Additionally, gravid mosquitoes were released into a larger air-flow olfactometer and responses measured towards collection chambers that contained cups filled with water or empty cups.
Unfed females equally dispersed in the small bioassay tubes to areas of high and low humidity (mean 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-62%). In contrast, gravid females were 2.4 times (95% CI 1.3-4.7) more likely to move towards high humidity than unfed females. The results were even more pronounced in the airflow olfactometer. Gravid females were 10.6 times (95% CI 5.4-20.8) more likely to enter the chamber with water than a dry chamber.
Water vapour is a strong pre-oviposition attractant to gravid An. gambiae s.s. in still and moving air and is likely to be a general cue used by mosquitoes for locating aquatic habitats.
- Anopheles gambiae
- Water vapour
- Gravid mosquitoes
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis are the two major vectors of malaria in Africa. Their primary larval habitats are commonly described as small, temporary, open, sunlit pools [1, 2], yet this is a gross oversimplification of the types of habitat actually colonized by these mosquitoes . In reality, immature stages of both species can be found in an enormous diversity of aquatic habitats and it has been difficult to characterize these sites with precision [4–7]. Semi-permanent water bodies are frequently as productive or even more productive over time than the small rain-filled puddles that are often only abundant during the rainy season [5–7]. Nearly every type of water accumulation, apart from excessively polluted smelly water, may contain anopheline larvae [3–5, 8–11]. The presence of larvae in a water body is thought to be the result of a combination of the egg-laying choice of gravid females that deposit their eggs in water and the survival of larvae in those habitats , although the cues that guide the gravid female’s choice are not well understood.
The attractiveness of field sites may be due to general characteristics and cues such as their relative position in relation to the resting site of gravid females, visual cues from these sites and the presence of water vapour plumes, as well as more habitat-specific chemical cues released from water bodies serving as semiochemicals which indicate the suitability of an aquatic habitat [1, 13, 14]. Although some putative semiochemicals have been suggested based on coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection [15–17], to date, no semiochemical has been confirmed to affect the behaviour of gravid An. gambiae s.l. Water vapour must be presumed to be the major chemical signal emanating from a potential larval habitat and although one might expect that gravid An. gambiae s.l. detect and respond to water vapour in their search for an aquatic habitat, this has never been experimentally confirmed for this species.
The present study set out to investigate the role of water vapour in the pre-ovipositional behaviour of An. gambiae s.s. which results in arrival at potential oviposition sites . Two separate choice tests were used: in the first test the response of unfed and gravid An. gambiae s.s. were compared using still air in cages connected to WHO bioassay tubes, in the second test gravid female responses were tested using moving air in a newly designed airflow olfactometer. In both systems An. gambiae s.s. were provided with a choice of moving towards an area of low or high humidity without visual cues or access to the water source.
The study was carried out at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Thomas Odhiambo Campus (icipe-TOC), Mbita, on the shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya (0° 26’ 06.19” S, 34° 12’ 53.13”E; 1,137 m above sea level). This area is characterized by an equatorial tropical climate with an average minimum temperature of 16°C and an average maximum temperature of 28°C. The area experiences two rainy seasons: the long rainy season between March and June and the short rainy season between October and December. The average annual rainfall for 2010-2012 was 1,436 mm (icipe-TOC meteorological station).
Insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. (Mbita strain) were used for all experiments. Five-days-old females were selected 30 minutes prior to the experiment from insectary colony cages where they had been kept in groups of approximately 300 males and 300 females in 30 × 30 × 30 cm netting cages and provided with 6% glucose solution ad libitum. These females never had a bloodmeal and are therefore referred to as unfed females. Gravid mosquitoes were prepared by transferring 150 female and 150 male mosquitoes, aged two days old, in 30 × 30 × 30 cm netting cages and provided with 6% glucose solution ad libitum at 25-28°C and a relative humidity between 68-75%. Saturated cotton towels, 50 × 25 cm in area, were folded and placed over the cages to avoid mosquito desiccation. Mosquitoes were starved from sugar for seven hours and allowed to feed on a rabbit for 15 minutes on day two and three post-emergence and rested for a further two days before use. Thus five-days-old gravid females were used for experiments.
For all experiments, piped non-chlorinated water pumped from Lake Victoria was used. The water was passed slowly through a locally made sand charcoal gravel filter for purification. Briefly, two 50 L buckets were placed on top of each other. The lower bucket’s lid contained a hole and the upper bucket’s floor was perforated with small holes for the filtered water to pass through to the lower bucket. The upper bucket contained three layers of gravel, activated charcoal and sand. Tap water was poured into the top of the upper bucket and run slowly through the layers. The aim was to remove large and small particles from the water including the majority of algae and bacteria. The purified water is referred to as ‘filtered tap water’.
In the two bioassays described below it is hypothesized that the tap water was attractive solely because of the presence of water vapour rather than because the water contained an attractive semiochemical. This assumption is based on a preliminary experiment, that was implemented comparing the oviposition response of An. gambiae s.s. to filtered tap water and double-distilled water. A description of the experiment and results can be found in Additional file 1. Gravid females did not have a significant preference for either filtered tap water or distilled water.
Airflow olfactometer bioassays
Responses of gravid An. gambiae s.s. were compared for three different treatments in an olfactometer: (1) both chambers contained dry cups, (2) both chambers contained cups filled with water, and (3) one chamber contained a dry cup (control) and the other a cup with water (test). In all cases cups were randomly allocated as ‘control’ or ‘test’ (even if the same treatments were provided) to the two chambers to help facilitate the analysis.
Each treatment was replicated 24 times (the ‘test’ cup of each treatment was located in each of the chambers of each of the three olfactometers four times) in order to estimate the variability in responses so that sample size calculations could be done. Power calculations were based on the formula from Hayes and Bennett  for comparing proportions of clustered data. When gravid females were provided with identical treatments in both chambers, 24 replicates resulted in a similar proportion in each chamber (p1 = 0.5). The variability of the nightly catches was used to calculate the coefficient of variation (ratio of standard deviation/mean), which was high at 0.33. Assuming that out of 100 mosquitoes released, 80 respond by entering one or the other collection chamber, 24 replicates in each arm (p1 and p2) can detect an increase or decrease in the catch rate of 20% (p2 = 0.7) with 90% power at a 5% significance level. Data loggers (Tinytag, TV4500) were placed in the two collection chambers and the release compartment for three nights in each of the three treatments to measure relative humidity.
Data were analysed using generalized linear models comparing the mean proportion of female mosquitoes responding to the test cage or the test compartment. Responses of non-fed and gravid females towards the humid cage were compared in WHO-tube bioassays. Odds ratios were calculated in reference to the response of non-gravid females. In the airflow olfactometer bioassays responses of gravid females towards the three different experimental treatments (dry-dry, water-water, dry-water) were compared. Odds ratios were calculated in reference to the wet-wet comparison (equal treatments). The experimental treatments, the olfactometer (A, B, C) and the collection chamber (left, right) were entered as fixed factors to estimate their impact on the outcome. Since the data were highly over-dispersed, quasibinominal distributions were used. Mean proportions per treatment and their 95% CIs were calculated using the parameter estimates of the models by removing the intercept from the models. All analyses were done with R statistical software version 2.14.2 .
The mean percentage of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. attracted to the test cage in the WHO-tube bioassays and to the test compartment in the airflow olfactometer bioassays
Mean percentage (%) in test (95% CI)*
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Response towards high humidity cage (test) in WHO-tube bioassays at 21.30
Airflow olfactometer bioassays with gravid An. gambiae s.s. in three experimental treatments
Wet (control) vs. wet (test)
Dry (control) vs. dry (test)
Dry (control) vs. wet (test)
Airflow olfactometer bioassays
Differences in relative humidity between areas with and without water were lower in the airflow olfactometer experiments than in the cage experiments. Relative humidity was on average 20% higher in chambers that contained water than in areas that did not (collection chamber and/or release compartment). Nightly relative humidity in collection chambers containing water was 91% (95% CI 90-92%), the average relative humidity in dry release compartments or dry chambers was 71% (95% CI 69-72%). The temperature did not differ between collection chambers and release compartments irrespective of the treatments and was on average 27.7°C (95% CI 27.2-27.9°C) during the 24 nights of experiments.
When presented with an identical treatment the gravid females approached both collection chambers in equal proportion (estimated ratio 1:1) whilst on average 93% of the gravid females chose the chamber with water (estimated ratio 1:11), when the other was dry (Table 1) irrespective of whether the test cup was presented in the left or right collection chamber and irrespective of which of the three olfactometers was used for the test (both factors were not significantly related to the outcome).
Here evidence is presented that gravid An. gambiae s.s. move from lower humidity towards higher humidity. This has been shown at short distances of 15-20 cm in still air and along an air stream of moving water vapour towards an area of higher humidity at longer distances of about 60 cm. Whilst one cannot be certain that gravid females are attracted to water vapour, since they could be repelled from drier areas, it is more likely that attractiveness of water vapour was responsible for the strong results observed since the relative humidity in the low humidity test areas was close to 60% and above, which is similar to the relative humidity of their resting places [23, 24]. This is supported by the results with unfed females, which did not show any preference for moving into the higher humidity cage compared to the lower humidity cage. Nevertheless, it has been shown with all physiological stages that individuals can orientate to water vapour plumes or humidity differences much in the same way that a mosquito locates a host . Early studies indicated that in Aedes aegypti humidity receptors were present on the antennae of females . In Anopheles atroparvus the hygroreceptors were located on the distal segments of the antennae bearing most of the grooved pegs . Recent studies with An. gambiae s.s. have confirmed that more than half the grooved pegs on the antennae increase their firing rate in the presence of water vapour and that some respond to low humidity, suggesting that these receptors play a role in humidity perception . Whilst it has been shown that humidity is important for the survival of mosquitoes , a clear difference in the behaviour of unfed and gravid females was demonstrated in the presented WHO tube experiments. The strong responses observed in gravid mosquitoes towards moving to areas of very high humidity is likely to increase the reproductive success of females, since they are more likely to find an aquatic habitat that might serve as a potential oviposition site, and would therefore be an adaptive trait selected for in nature.
In the tube bioassay, only a small number of gravid mosquitoes left the central holding tube immediately after the gates were opened. This might indicate that mosquitoes remained static long enough for detecting the humidity differences and direction before moving, especially since the difference in humidity was only around 12% at the time when the gates were opened and no airflow was created. However, at the end of the peak oviposition period 2.4 times more mosquitoes had moved into the humid cage than the drier one whilst the response of unfed females was similar towards the two treatments.
The attraction of water vapour is demonstrated clearly with free-flying mosquitoes in airflow olfactometers. Here seven to eight times more gravid mosquitoes were found in the collection chambers when one or both chambers contain water than when both were dry. Furthermore, when given a choice between one chamber containing water and one that is dry, 11 times more gravid females were collected in the chamber with water. The upwind flight was probably stimulated by moist air. It is most likely that the greater attractiveness of water vapour in a wind tunnel than in the tubes was a result of moving moist air in the tunnel compared with the relatively still air in the tubes. Whilst the evidence presented here shows the attraction of water vapour over relatively short distances, previously published work provides support that water vapour might attract females over several metres. Dugassa et al. demonstrated that when gravid An. gambiae s.s. females were released into a large screened semi-field system the attractiveness of a reflecting surface was increased by 60% when presented close to water compared with when it was presented without water . In this case females travelled at least 5 m from the release point to the site where they were collected. Anopheles gambiae is highly sensitive to subtle changes in moisture as seen when selecting moist sites for ovipositing .
It cannot be totally excluded that chemicals other than water were released from the tap water in the experiments described in this paper, since water purification with charcoal-sand filters does not completely sterilize the water or remove all chemicals. Nevertheless, the observed attraction was very strong, especially in the airflow olfactometers. If this was based on semiochemicals released from the tap water, an effect should have been observed to larger degree in the preliminary experiments comparing tap water with double-distilled water. However, in these experiments only a very slight and insignificant preference for the tap water was recorded (Additional file 1).
The present work supports the conclusion made by Kennedy that ‘water vapour emanating from a surface plays an important part in evoking pre-ovipository responses in mosquitoes (An. atroparvus, Ae. aegypti and Culex molestus)’ . He also recognized the importance of moist air currents to activate movement and help with orientation which ‘very probably play an important part in water-finding in the field’. Such conditions existed in the olfactometer experiments. The question arises if and how gravid mosquitoes might use water vapour to navigate through the landscape. The pattern of water vapour across the savanna can be highly heterogeneous, shaped by the local climate, topography, vegetation, soil characteristics and presence and extent of water bodies . The authors are not aware of research that has been conducted that describes the distribution, movement and concentration of water vapour at dusk in the savanna regions of tropical Africa at less than one metre above the ground; the environment encountered by gravid An. gambiae searching for a water body in which to lay their eggs. Such research is likely to provide further insights into the pre-oviposition behaviour of this important vector.
Water vapour is likely to be a general attractant for all mosquito species whatever their physiological status and it should not be considered the only attractive compound guiding gravid An. gambiae s.s. to an oviposition site. Water vapour has been shown to attract host-seeking mosquitoes  and indoor-resting mosquitoes . For host-seeking mosquitoes water vapour can indicate a human host, and for resting mosquitoes it provides an environment where the insect is less likely to dehydrate and die, so increasing its chances of survival. Nevertheless, the results presented here clearly show a difference between the responses of unfed and gravid females towards water vapour suggesting that it is an important cue for a gravid mosquito locating a potential water body, though it clearly cannot be the only one. If it was the only cue mosquitoes would accumulate in large bodies of water like lakes, rivers and seas, habitats inimical to their survival. Water vapour is likely to work in a synergistic manner with visual cues possibly over a longer range  and with semiochemicals attracting and repelling gravid An. gambiae mosquitoes over short distances [14, 15, 36, 37].
Gravid malaria vectors need to find suitable water bodies for their aquatic life stages to develop. Water consistently evaporates from aquatic habitats making water vapour probably the major chemical signal emanating from a potential larval habitat. This study demonstrates that gravid An. gambiae s.s. move into areas of high humidity or along airstreams of water vapour at the time of night they are actively seeking a site to lay their eggs, implicating water vapour as an important pre-oviposition attractant. More research is needed to address: (1) how water vapour is distributed over the landscape, (2) whether it assists gravid females in locating potential aquatic habitats over longer distances, and, (3) how it interacts with other pre-oviposition cues, either visual or chemical.
We would like to thank David Alila, Peter Ongele and Jackton Arija from the insectary at icipe-TOC, Mbita for providing mosquitoes for experiments; Liz Masinde, Paul Ouma, Rose Emelda, Greg Masinde for technical assistance. We thank Jenny Lindh and Steve Torr for valuable comments on the study design. This project was funded through a National Institute of Health (NIH) grant no. R01AI082537 supporting the Ovi-ART project (Oviposition of An. gambiae: Attractants, Residual Larvicides and Traps). BF received travel support from the LSHTM. SWL received support from the Research and Policy for Infectious Disease Dynamics (RAPIDD) Program of the Science and Technology Directory, Department of Homeland Security, and Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health.
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