Greenwood BM. Control to elimination: implications for malaria research. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:449–54.
Mendis K. Spatial technology & malaria control. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130:498–500.
MacDonald G. Epidemiological basis of malaria control. Bull World Health Org. 1956;15:613–26.
Govella NJ, Okumu FO, Killeen GF. Insecticide-treated nets can reduce malaria transmission by mosquitoes which feed outdoors. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:415–9.
Fegan GW, Noor AM, Akhwale WS, Cousens S, Snow RW. Effect of expanded insecticide-treated bednet coverage on child survival in rural Kenya: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2007;370:1035–9.
Eisele TP, Larsen DA, Walker N, Cibulskis RE, Yukich JO, Zikusooka CM, et al. Estimates of child deaths prevented from malaria prevention scale-up in Africa 2001–2010. Malar J. 2012;11:93.
WHO. World malaria report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
TACAIDS Z, NBS, OCGS, ICF International Calverton, Maryland USA. Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011–12 pp. 1–235. Dar es Salaam Tanzania; 2013. pp. 1–235.
Durnez L, Coosemans M. Residual transmission of malaria: an old issue for new approaches. In: Manguin S, editor. Anopheles mosquitoes—new insights into malaria vectors, chapter 21, 2014, ISBN 978-953-51-1188-7.
Reddy MR, Overgaard HJ, Abaga S, Reddy VP, Caccone A, Kiszewski AE, et al. Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Malar J. 2011;10:184.
Moiroux N, Gomez MB, Pennetier C, Elanga E, Djènontin A, Chandre F, et al. Changes in Anopheles funestus biting behavior following universal coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Benin. Infect Dis. 2012;206:1622–9.
Geissbühler Y, Chaki P, Emidi B, Govella NJ, Shirima R, Mayagaya V, et al. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malar J. 2007;6:126.
Dunn CE, Le Mare A, Makungu C. Malaria risk behaviours, socio-cultural practices and rural livelihoods in southern Tanzania: implications for bednet usage. Soc Sci Med. 2011;72:408–17.
Monroe A, Asamoah O, Lam Y, Koenker H, Psychas P, Lynch M, et al. Outdoor-sleeping and other night-time activities in northern Ghana: implications for residual transmission and malaria prevention. Malar J. 2015;14:35.
Govella NJ, Ferguson H. Why use of interventions targeting outdoor biting mosquitoes will be necessary to achieve malaria elimination. Front Physiol. 2012;3:199.
The malERA Consultative Group on Vector Control. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vector control. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000401.
Killeen GF. Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission. Malar J. 2014;13:330.
Vontas J, Moore S, Kleinschmidt I, Ranson H, Lindsay S, Lengeler C, et al. Framework for rapid assessment and adoption of new vector control tools. Trends Parasitol. 2014;30:191–204.
Ogoma SB, Ngonyani H, Simfukwe ET, Mseka A, Moore J, Killeen GF. Spatial repellency of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in a semi-field tunnel cage. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:54.
Maia MF, Onyango SP, Thele M, Simfukwe ET, Turner EL, Moore SJ. Do topical repellents divert mosquitoes within a community?–Health equity implications of topical repellents as a mosquito bite prevention tool. PLoS One. 2013;8:e84875.
Moore SJ, Lenglet A, Hill N. Field evaluation of three plant-based insect repellents against malaria vectors in Vaca Diez Province, the Bolivian Amazon. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2002;18:107–10.
Frances SP, Debboun M, Frances S, Strickman D: Efficacy and safety of repellents containing DEET. In: Debboun M, Frances SP, editors. Insect repellents: principles, methods, and uses, Strickman, chap 16, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2007. pp 311–326.
Sangoro O, Turner E, Simfukwe E, Miller JE, Moore SJ. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of using 15% DEET topical repellent with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) compared to a placebo lotion on malaria transmission. Malar J. 2014;13:324.
Macintyre K, Sosler S, Letipila F, Lochigan M, Hassig S, Omar SA, et al. A new tool for malaria prevention?: Results of a trial of permethrin-impregnated bedsheets (shukas) in an area of unstable transmission. Int J Epidem. 2003;32:157–60.
Kitau J, Oxborough R, Kaye A, Chen-Hussey V, Isaacs E, Matowo J, et al. Laboratory and experimental hut evaluation of a long-lasting insecticide treated blanket for protection against mosquitoes. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:129.
Habtewold T, Prior A, Torr S, Gibson G. Could insecticide-treated cattle reduce Afrotropical malaria transmission? Effects of deltamethrin-treated Zebu on Anopheles arabiensis behaviour and survival in Ethiopia. Med Vet Entomol. 2004;18:408–17.
Hewitt S, Rowland M. Control of zoophilic malaria vectors by applying pyrethroid insecticides to cattle. Trop Med Int Health. 1999;4:481–6.
Fillinger U, Lindsay SW. Larval source management for malaria control in Africa: myths and reality. Malar J. 2011;10:353.
Majambere S, Pinder M, Fillinger U, Ameh D, Conway DJ, Green C, et al. Is mosquito larval source management appropriate for reducing malaria in areas of extensive flooding in The Gambia? A cross-over intervention trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:176–84.
Müller GC, Beier JC, Traore SF, Toure MB, Traore MM, Bah S, et al. Successful field trial of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) plant-spraying methods against malaria vectors in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Mali. West Africa. Malar J. 2010;9:210.
Müller GC, Beier JC, Traore SF, Toure MB, Traore MM, Bah S, et al. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods. Malar J. 2010;9:262.
Okumu FO, Madumla EP, John AN, Lwetoijera DW, Sumaye RD. Attracting, trapping and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes using odor-baited stations-The Ifakara Odor-Baited Stations. Parasit Vectors. 2010;3:12.
Okumu FO, Killeen GF, Ogoma S, Biswaro L, Smallegange RC, Mbeyela E, et al. Development and field evaluation of a synthetic mosquito lure that is more attractive than humans. PLoS One. 2010;5:e8951.
Matowo NS, Moore J, Mapua S, Madumla EP, Moshi IR, Kaindoa EW, Mwangungulu SP, Kavishe DR, Sumaye RD, Lwetoijera DW, Okumu FO. Using a new odour-baited device to explore options for luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors: a report on design and field evaluation of the Mosquito Landing Box. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:137.
Lwetoijera DW, Sumaye RD, Madumla EP, Kavishe DR, Mnyone LL, Russell TL, Okumu FO. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis. Parasit Vectors. 2010;3:18.
Matowo NS. Combining synthetic human odors and low-cost electrocuting grids to attract and kill outdoor-biting mosquitoes: field and semi-field evaluation of an improved mosquito landing box. Masters Thesis, University of Witwatersrand, 2014.
Asidi A, N’Guessan R, Hutchinson R, Traoré-Lamizana M, Carnevale P, Curtis C. Experimental hut comparisons of nets treated with carbamate or pyrethroid insecticides, washed or unwashed, against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol. 2004;18:134–40.
Mnyone LL, Lyimo IN, Lwetoijera DW, Mpingwa MW, Nchimbi N, Hancock PA, et al. Exploiting the behaviour of wild malaria vectors to achieve high infection with fungal biocontrol agents. Malar J. 2012;11:87.
Kawada H, Shono Y, Ito T, Abe Y. Laboratory evaluation of insect growth regulators against several species of anopheline mosquitoes. Jpn J Sanit Zool. 1993;44:349.
Lwetoijera D, Harris C, Kiware S, Dongus S, Devine GJ, McCall PJ, et al. Effective autodissemination of pyriproxyfen to breeding sites by the exophilic malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in semi-field settings in Tanzania. Malar J. 2014;13:161.
Harris C, Lwetoijera DW, Dongus S, Matowo NS, Lorenz LM, Devine GJ, et al. Sterilising effects of pyriproxyfen on Anopheles arabiensis and its potential use in malaria control. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:144.
Bayoh MN, Mathias DK, Odiere MR, Mutuku FM, Kamau L, Gimnig JE, et al. Anopheles gambiae: historical population decline associated with regional distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets in western Nyanza Province, Kenya. Malar J. 2010;9:62.
Elliott R. The influence of vector behavior on malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1972;21:755–63.
Pates H, Curtis C. Mosquito behavior and vector control. Ann Rev Entomol. 2005;50:53–70.
Davidson G. Experiments on the effect of residual insecticides in houses against Anopheles gambiae and A. funestus. Bull Entomol Res. 1953;44:231–54.
Okumu FO, Govella NJ, Moore SJ, Chitnis N, Killeen GF. Potential benefits, limitations and target product-profiles of odor-baited mosquito traps for malaria control in Africa. PLoS One. 2010;5:e11573.
Russell TL, Lwetoijera DW, Maliti D, Chipwaza B, Kihonda J, Charlwood JD, et al. Impact of promoting longer-lasting insecticide treatment of bed nets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage of untreated nets. Malar J. 2010;9:187.
Mwangangi JM, Mbogo CM, Orindi BO, Muturi EJ, Midega JT, Nzovu J, et al. Shifts in malaria vector species composition and transmission dynamics along the Kenyan coast over the past 20 years. Malar J. 2013;12:13.
Sinka ME, Bangs MJ, Manguin S, Rubio-Palis Y, Chareonviriyaphap T, Coetzee M, et al. A global map of dominant malaria vectors. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:69.
Ferguson HM, Ng’habi KR, Walder T, Kadungula D, Moore SJ, Lyimo I, et al. Establishment of a large semi-field system for experimental study of African malaria vector ecology and control in Tanzania. Malar J. 2008;7:158.
Ng’habi KR, Mwasheshi D, Knols BG, Ferguson HM. Establishment of a self-propagating population of the African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions. Malar J. 2010;9:356.
Okumu F, Sumaye RD, Matowo NS, Mwangungulu SP, Kaindoa EW, Moshi IR, et al. Outdoor mosquito control using odour-baited devices: development and evaluation of a potential new strategy to complement indoor malaria prevention methods. Malaria World J. 2013;4:8.
Okumu FO, Chipwaza B, Madumla EP, Mbeyela E, Lingamba G, Moore J, et al. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and longlasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention. Malar J. 2012;11:378.
Mweresa CK, Omusula P, Otieno B, van Loon JJ, Takken W, Mukabana WR. Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. Malar J. 2014;13:160.
Saitoh Y, Hattori J, Chinone S, Nihei N, Tsuda Y, Kurahashi H, et al. Yeast-generated CO2 as a convenient source of carbon dioxide for adult mosquito sampling. JAMCA. 2004;20:261–4.
Ishaaya I, Horowitz A. Novel phenoxy juvenile hormone analog (pyriproxyfen) suppresses embryogenesis and adult emergence of sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ Entomol. 1992;85:2113–7.
Kawada H, KojiMA I, Shinjo G. Laboratory evaluation of a new insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen, as a cockroach control agent. Jpn J Sanit Zool. 1989;40:195–201.
Caputo B, Ienco A, Cianci D, Pombi M, Petrarca V, Baseggio A, et al. The “auto-dissemination” approach: a novel concept to fight Aedes albopictus in urban areas. PLoS Neg Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1793.
Lwetoijera DW, Harris C, Kiware SS, Killeen GF, Dongus S, Devine GJ, et al. Comprehensive sterilization of malaria vectors using pyriproxyfen: a step closer to malaria elimination. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:852–5.
Scholte E-J, Ng’habi K, Kihonda J, Takken W, Paaijmans K, Abdulla S, et al. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes. Science. 2005;308:1641–2.
Mnyone LL, Kirby MJ, Lwetoijera DW, Mpingwa MW, Knols BG, Takken W, et al. Infection of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, with two species of entomopathogenic fungi: effects of concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence. Malar J. 2009;8:309.
Silva RO, Silva HH, Luz C. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae isolated from soil samples of the central Brazilian cerrado against Aedes aegypti larvae under laboratory conditions. Revista de Patologia Tropical. 2008;33:207–16.
Mnyone LL, Kirby MJ, Mpingwa MW, Lwetoijera DW, Knols BG, Takken W, et al. Infection of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi: effect of host age and blood-feeding status. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:317–22.
WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme: specifications for public health pesticides. http://www.who.int/whopes/quality/en/.
Rowland M, Boko P, Odjo A, Asidi A, Akogbeto M, N’Guessan R. A new long-lasting indoor residual formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos methyl for prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Benin. PLoS One. 2013;8:e69516.
Service MW. A critical review of procedures for sampling populations of adult mosquitoes. Bull Entomol Res. 1977;67:343–82.
Abbott W. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol. 1925;18:265–7.
Govella NJ, Chaki PP, Geissbuhler Y, Kannady K, Okumu F, Charlwood JD, et al. A new tent trap for sampling exophagic and endophagic members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Malar J. 2009;8:157.
Mnyone LL, Russell TL, Lyimo IN, Lwetoijera DW, Kirby MJ, Luz C. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae ss and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae). Parasit Vectors. 2009;2:59.
Blanford S, Chan BH, Jenkins N, Sim D, Turner RJ, Read AF, Thomas MB. Fungal pathogen reduces potential for malaria transmission. Science. 2005;308:1638–41.
Bailey R. Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008.
R Development Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2012, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0.
Bates D, Maechler M: Package ‘lme4’(Version 0.999375-32): linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. Available (April 2011) at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4/lme4.pdf. 2009.
Spss I. Ibm, SPSS statistics version 21. Boston, Mass: International Business Machines Corp; 2012.
Mason C. Cox proportional hazard models. 2005. http://www.demog.berkeley.edu/213/Week14/welcome.pdf.
Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, Ter Kuile FO, Alaii JA, et al. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:23–9.
Kikankie CK, Brooke BD, Knols BG, Koekemoer LL, Farenhorst M, Hunt RH, et al. The infectivity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to insecticide-resistant and susceptible Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes at two different temperatures. Parasit Vectors. 2010;15:25.
Okumu FO. Medium range olfactory responses of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s to synthetic odor blends. Masters Thesis. University of Nairobi, School of Biological Sciences; 2008.
Kanzok SM, Jacobs-Lorena M. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological insecticides to control malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:49–51.
Scholte E-J, Knols BG, Takken W. Infection of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, reduces blood feeding and fecundity. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;91:43–9.
Govella NJ, Moore JD, Killeen GF. An exposure-free tool for monitoring adult malaria mosquito populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:596–600.
Gaugler R, Suman D, Wang Y. An autodissemination station for the transfer of an insect growth regulator to mosquito oviposition sites. Med Vet Entomol. 2012;26:37–45.
Mbare O, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. Pyriproxyfen for mosquito control: female sterilization or horizontal transfer to oviposition substrates by Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:280.
Ohashi K, Nakada K, Ishiwatari T, Miyaguchi JI, Shono Y, Lucas JR, et al. Efficacy of pyriproxyfen-treated nets in sterilizing and shortening the longevity of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2012;49:1052–8.
Majambere S, Masue D, Mlacha Y, Govella NJ, Magesa SM, Killeen GF. Advantages and limitations of commercially available electrocuting grids for studying mosquito behaviour. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:53.
Andrés M, Lorenz LM, Mbeyela E, Moore SJ. Modified mosquito landing boxes dispensing transfluthrin provide effective protection against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under simulated outdoor conditions in a semi-field system. Malar J. 2015;14. doi:10.1186/s12936-12015-10762-12938.
Kaindoa EW. Using human biomass and its spatial distribution to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission pattern in rural Tanzania. Masters Thesis. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; 2014.
Bousema T, Drakeley C, Gesase S, Hashim R, Magesa S, Mosha F, et al. Identification of hot spots of malaria transmission for targeted malaria control. J Infect Dis. 2011;201:1764–74.