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Table 1 Summary of reports investigating EVs in malaria infection

From: The role of extracellular vesicles in malaria biology and pathogenesis

Vesicle type Vesicle size Vesicle isolation method Cell origin Study type Species Key findings Report
Host-derived vesicles
 MV NA Supernatant from 13,000×g centrifugation Endothelial Human field study P. falciparum MVs present in infected individuals. [33]
 MV NA Supernatant from 13,000×g centrifugation Endothelial, platelet, erythrocyte Human field study P. falciparum MVs in infected individuals are associated with severe malaria and TNF levels. [38]
 MV NA Pellet from 100,000×g centrifugation Endothelial, platelet, erythrocyte Human field study P. falciparum MVs in infected individuals are associated with severe malaria and ACBA1 gene polymorphisms. [36]
 MV NA Supernatant from 13,000×g centrifugation Endothelial, platelet, leukocyte, erythrocyte Human field study P. falciparum MVs in infected individuals are associated with cerebral malaria only. [37]
 MV NA Pellet from 20,800×g centrifugation Platelet In vitro P. falciparum Platelet MVs are involved in iRBC cytoadhesion. [40]
 MV NA Pellet from 14,000×g centrifugation Platelet, leukocyte, erythrocyte Human field study P. vivax MVs in infected individuals are associated with malaria disease severity. [42]
 MV NA Supernatant from 13,000×g centrifugation or pellet from 20,000×g centrifugation Endothelial, platelet, monocyte In vivo P. berghei ANKA MVs involved in cerebral malaria. [34]
 MV NA Pellet from 18,000×g centrifugation Endothelial, platelet, erythrocyte In vivo and in vitro P. berghei MVs localize to brain during infection, and can directly induce pathology. [41]
 MV 100–1000 nm Pellet from 18,000×g centrifugation NA In vivo P. berghei ANKA Proteomic characterization of MVs in cerebral malaria. [4]
Parasite-derived vesicles
 MV NA 13,000×g centrifugation iRBC Human field study and in vitro P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae MVs released from iRBC during active infection. [48]
 MV 100–400 nm 100,000×g centrifugation on sucrose cushion iRBC In vitro P. falciparum MVs released from iRBC contain parasite protein and RNA, are immunostimulatory, and induce gametocytogenesis. [49]
 NA NA 100,000×g centrifugation on sucrose cushion iRBC In vitro P. falciparum EVs from iRBC contain functional microRNA that are endocytosed by human endothelial cells and affect barrier properties. [51]
 Exo 70–120 nm 100,000×g centrifugation on Optiprep gradient iRBC In vitro P. falciparum Exosomes used for intra-parasitic communication, and induce gametocytogenesis. [50]
 MV 150–250 nm Pellet from 14,000×g centrifugation iRBC In vivo P. berghei ANKA MVs from parasites are pro-inflammatory and stimulate TLR pathways. [46]
 Exo 40–80 nm Pellet from 100,000×g centrifugation, or 100,000×g sucrose cushion iRBC In vivo P. yoelii iRBC release exosomes with parasite antigens; exosomes can be used to immunize naïve mice. [47]
  1. MV microvesicle, Exo exosome or exosome-like vesicle, NA information not available or provided