KMA contributed to the development, analysis and largely to the writing and editing of the manuscript. ML, EC, DHH, KCK, KL, MPG, SHH, PK, DGL, PL, PG, SO, and FC contributed data to the analysis through their respective GeoSentinel site(s) and contributed significantly to the assessment of the analysis and manuscript writing. CP and DHE contributed significantly to the development of the project and the editing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We wish to acknowledge the assistance of Kayce Maisel and Jodi Metzgar from the International Society of Travel Medicine for their assistance with data collection. We would also like to acknowledge the valuable input from Paul Arguin, MD and Andrea Boggild, MD on the manuscript.
GeoSentinel Network Additional members of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network who did not author the article but contributed data (in descending order) are Emilie Javelle, Marseille, France; Francesco Castelli and Alberto Matteelli, Brescia, Italy; Alice Perignon, Paris, France; Camilla Rothe, Hamburg, Germany; Christoph Rapp and Cecile Ficko, Paris, France; Eli Schwartz, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Frank von Sonnenburg, Munich, Germany; Watcharapong Piyaphanee and Udomsak Silachamroon, Bangkok, Thailand; Andrea Boggild, Toronto, Canada; Perry Van Genderen, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Joe Torresi, Melbourne, Australia; Mogens Jensenius, Oslo, Norway; Shuzo Kanagawa and Yasuyuki Kato, Tokyo, Japan; Cedric Yansouni, Montreal, Canada; Anne McCarthy, Ottawa, Canada; Paul Kelly, New York, United States; Bram Goorhuis, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Rogelio López-Vélez and Francesco Norman, Madrid, Spain; Marc Mendelson and Peter Vincent, Cape Town, South Africa; Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas and Ben Warne, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Denis Malvy and Alexandre Duvignaud, Bordeaux, France; Emanuel Bottieau and Joannes Clerinx, Antwerp, Belgium; Christina Coyle, New York, United States; Hilmer Àsgeirsson and Hedvig Glans, Stockholm, Sweden; Patricia Schlagenhauf and Rainer Weber, Zurich, Switzerland; Frank Mockenhaupt and Gundel Harms-Zwingenberger, Berlin, Germany; Nicholas Beeching, Liverpook, United Kingdom; Jan Hajek and Wayne Ghesquiere, Vancouver, Canada; Henry Wu, Atlanta, United States; Elizabeth Barnett and Natasha Hockberg, Boston, United States; Yukiriro Yoshimura and Natsuo Tachikawa, Yokohama, Japan; John Cahill and George McKinley, New York, United States; William Stauffer and Pat Walker, Minneapolis, United States; Susan Kuhn, Calgary, Canada; Lin Chen, Cambridge, United States; Daniel Leung and Scott Benson, Salt Lake City, United States; Carsten Schade Larsen and Christian Wejse, Aarhus, Denmark; Vanessa Field, London, United Kingdom; Carmelo Licitra and Alena Klochko, Orlando, United States; Noreen Hynes, Baltimore, United States; Cecilia Perret Perez, Santiago, Chile; Bradley Connor, New York, United States; Holly Murphy and Prativa Pandey, Kathmandu, Nepal; Jean Vincelette and Sapha Barkati, Montreal, Canada; Simin Aysel Florescu and Corneliu Petru Popescu, Bucharest, Romania; Lucille Blumberg and Albie De Frey, Johannesburg, South Africa; Susan Anderson, Palo Alto, United States; Marc Shaw and AnneMarie Hern, Auckland, New Zealand; Israel Molina, Barcelona, Spain; Johnnie Yates, Honolulu, Hawaii; Hugo Siu and Luis Manuel Valdez, Lima, Peru; Jean Haulman and David Roesel, Seattle, United States; Phi Truong Hoang Phu, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam; Sarah Borwein, Hong Kong SAR, China.
DHH: Grant support from the International Society of Travel Medicine, support for travel through the GeoSentinel Cooperative Agreement; KL: Grant/research funding (unrelated to this publication) and travel support from GlaxoSmithKline; KCK: Grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Foundation Grant, Canadian research chair, patent for biomarkers for life-threatening infections (not related to this publication).
Availability of data and materials
The datasets generated and analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to an agreement between CDC and ISTM.
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Analysis of GeoSentinel surveillance data has been approved as non-research by a CDC human subjects advisor.
GeoSentinel is supported by a cooperative agreement (U50CK00189) between the CDC and International Society of Travel Medicine; funding was also received by GeoSentinel from the International Society of Travel Medicine and the Public Health Agency of Canada.
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