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Table 1 Model parameter description and data sources

From: Simulation models predict that school-age children are responsible for most human-to-mosquito Plasmodium falciparum transmission in southern Malawi

Parameter Description Source Value
n a,d Number of humans of age group a that are P. falciparum-infected with gametocytes at density d in Southern Malawi Calculated, Eq. 1 \(n_{a ,d} = N_{a} \alpha_{a} g_{a ,d}\)
N a Number of people in age group a in Southern Malawi 2008 Census [27]  
α a Prevalence of P. falciparum in age group a ICEMR-Malawi primary data See Table 2
g a,d Proportion of infections in age group a with gametocyte density d ICEMR-Malawi primary data See Table 2
κ d Percent of mosquitoes infected with oocysts after a blood meal from a person with gametocytes at density d Churcher et al. [24] 0.015 d = 1 (< 1/μL)
0.04 d = 2 (1–200/μL)
0.10 d = 3 (> 200–400/μL)
0.18 d = 4 (> 400/μL)
κ a Relative infectivity per blood meal by age category a Ouédraogo et al. [17] (including personal data communication) 2.5 a = 1 (< 5 years)
1.7 a = 2 (5–15 years)
1.0 (ref) a = 3 (> 15–30 years)
0.6 a = 4 (> 30 years)
b a Relative mosquito biting frequency by human age group a Calculated, Eq. 2 \(b_{a} = \delta_{a} \left( {\sigma_{a} \gamma + \left( {1 - \sigma_{a} } \right)} \right)\)
δ a Vector’s relative feeding preference for human age group a Stone et al. [21] 1.0 (ref) a = 1 (< 5 years)
3.0 a = 2 (5–15 years)
4.0 a = 3 (> 15–30 years)
4.0 a = 4 (> 30 years)
g a Proportion of people in age group a who use a bed net ICEMR-Malawi primary data See Table 2
γ Relative reduction in nightly biting frequency for bed net users compared to non-users Killeen et al. [28] 0.40
M a Relative number of new mosquito oocyst infections attributable to human age group a Calculated, Eq. 3 \(M_{a} = \kappa_{a} b_{a} \sum\limits_{d = 1}^{4} {\left( {n_{a ,d} k_{d} } \right)}\)
F a Fraction of all new mosquito infections attributable to human age group a Calculated, Eq. 4 \(F_{a} = \frac{{M_{a} }}{{\sum_{a = 1}^{4} {M_{a} } }}\)
  1. ICEMR International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research