Dawood FS, Ricks P, Njie GJ, Daugherty M, Davis W, Fuller JA, et al. Observations of the global epidemiology of COVID-19 from the prepandemic period using web-based surveillance: a cross-sectional analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20:1255–62.
Müller O, Lu G, Jahn A, Razum O. COVID-19 control: can Germany learn from China? Int J Health Policy Manag. 2020;9:432–5.
WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. World Health Organization. 2021. https://covid19.who.int/table.
Lu G, Razum O, Jahn A, Zhang Y, Sutton B, Sridhar D, et al. COVID-19 in Germany and China: mitigation versus elimination strategy. Glob Health Action. 2021;14:1875601.
Maeda JM, Nkengasong JN. The puzzle of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. Science. 2021;371:27–8.
Massinga Loembé M, Tshangela A, Salyer SJ, Varma JK, Ouma AEO, Nkengasong JN. COVID-19 in Africa: the spread and response. Nat Med. 2020;26:999–1003.
Boum Y, Bebell LM, Zoung-Kanyi Bisseck A-C. Africa needs local solutions to face the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2021;397:1238–40.
Salyer SJ, Maeda J, Sembuche S, Kebede Y, Tshangela A, Moussif M, et al. The first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2021;397:1265–75.
WHO. Coronavirus (COVID-19), Africa 2021. https://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus-covid-19.
Gutman JR, Lucchi NW, Cantey PT, Steinhardt LC, Samuels AM, Kamb ML, et al. Malaria and parasitic neglected tropical diseases: potential syndemics with COVID-19? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103:572–7.
Mulenga LB, Hines JZ, Fwoloshi S, Chirwa L, Siwingwa M, Yingst S, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in six districts in Zambia in July, 2020: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9:e773–81.
Usuf E, Roca A. Seroprevalence surveys in sub-Saharan Africa: what do they tell us? Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9:e724–5.
Impouma B, Wolfe CM, Mboussou F, Farham B, Saturday T, Pervilhac C, et al. Monitoring and evaluation of COVID-19 response in the WHO African Region: challenges and lessons learned. Epidemiol Infect. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268821000807 (Online ahead of print).
Müller O. Malaria in Africa: challenges for control and elimination in the 21st century. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Publ; 2011.
Global Burden of Disease, Viz Hub. University of Washington. 2021. https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/. Accessed 30 Apr 2021.
Amimo F, Lambert B, Magit A. What does the COVID-19 pandemic mean for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control? Trop Med Health. 2020;48:32.
WHO. World malaria report 2020: 20 years of global progress and challenges. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. https://www.who.int/teams/global-malaria-programme/reports/world-malaria-report-2020.
Munn Z, Peters MDJ, Stern C, Tufanaru C, McArthur A, Aromataris E. Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18:143.
Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, et al. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169:467–73.
Schardt C, Adams MB, Owens T, Keitz S, Fontelo P. Utilization of the PICO framework to improve searching PubMed for clinical questions. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2007;7:16.
Weiss DJ, Bertozzi-Villa A, Rumisha SF, Amratia P, Arambepola R, Battle KE, et al. Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria intervention coverage, morbidity, and mortality in Africa: a geospatial modelling analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21:59–69.
WHO. The potential impact of health service disruptions on the burden of malaria: a modelling analysis for countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
Sherrard-Smith E, Hogan AB, Hamlet A, Watson OJ, Whittaker C, Winskill P, et al. The potential public health consequences of COVID-19 on malaria in Africa. Nat Med. 2020;26:1411–6.
Bell D, Hansen KS. Relative burdens of the COVID-19, malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. medRxiv. 2021:2021.03.27.21254483.
Ansumana R, Sankoh O, Zumla A. Effects of disruption from COVID-19 on antimalarial strategies. Nat Med. 2020;26:1334–6.
Chanda-Kapata P, Kapata N, Zumla A. COVID-19 and malaria: a symptom screening challenge for malaria endemic countries. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;94:151–3.
Kusotera T, Nhengu TG. Coronavirus-19 and malaria: the great mimics. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2020;12:e1–3.
Ajayi IO, Ajumobi OO, Falade C. Malaria and COVID-19: commonalities, intersections and implications for sustaining malaria control. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;37(Suppl 1):1.
Buonsenso D, Iodice F, Cinicola B, Raffaelli F, Sowa S, Ricciardi W. Management of malaria in children under 5-years-old during COVID-19 pandemic in Sierra Leone: a lesson learned? medRxiv. 2020:2020.11.04.20225714.
WHO. Tailoring malaria interventions in the COVID-19 response. Global Malaria Programme. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/tailoring-malaria-interventions-in-the-covid-19-response.
Steketee RW, Choi M, Linn A, Florey L, Murphy M, Panjabi R. World Malaria Day 2021: commemorating 15 years of contribution by the United States President’s Malaria Initiative. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;104:1955–9.
The Global Fund. Mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on countries affected by HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. 2020. https://www.theglobalfund.org/media/9819/covid19_mitigatingimpact_report_en.pdf.
Brooke B, Raman J, Frean J, Rundle K, Maartens F, Misiani E, et al. Implementing malaria control in South Africa, Eswatini and southern Mozambique during the COVID-19 pandemic. S Afr Med J. 2020;110:1072–6.
Anjorin AA, Abioye AI, Asowata OE, Soipe A, Kazeem MI, Adesanya IO, et al. Comorbidities and the COVID-19 pandemic dynamics in Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2021;26:2–13.
Di Gennaro F, Marotta C, Locantore P, Pizzol D, Putoto G. Malaria and COVID-19: common and different findings. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020;5:141.
Hussein MIH, Albashir AAD, Elawad OAMA, Homeida A. Malaria and COVID-19: unmasking their ties. Malar J. 2020;19:457.
Beshir KB, Grignard L, Hajissa K, Mohammed A, Nurhussein AM, Ishengoma DS, et al. Emergence of undetectable malaria parasites: a threat under the radar amid the COVID-19 pandemic? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103:558–60.
Abdul-Mumin A, Abubakari A, Agbozo F, Abdul-Karim A, Nuertey BD, Mumuni K, et al. Field evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a standard SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid diagnostic test: a prospective study at a teaching hospital in Northern Ghana. medRxiv. 2021:2021.06.03.21258300.
Cao R, Hu H, Li Y, Wang X, Xu M, Liu J, et al. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of artemisinins in vitro. ACS Infect Dis. 2020;6:2524–31.
Cortegiani A, Ingoglia G, Ippolito M, Giarratano A, Einav S. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. J Crit Care. 2020;57:279–83.
Gendrot M, Duflot I, Boxberger M, Delandre O, Jardot P, Le Bideau M, et al. Antimalarial artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) and COVID-19 in Africa: in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by mefloquine-artesunate. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;99:437–40.
Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J. 2005;2:69.
Boulware DR, Pullen MF, Bangdiwala AS, Pastick KA, Lofgren SM, Okafor EC, et al. A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis for Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:517–25.
Cavalcanti AB, Zampieri FG, Rosa RG, Azevedo LCP, Veiga VC, Avezum A, et al. Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin in mild-to-moderate Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:2041–52.
Rakedzon S, Neuberger A, Domb AJ, Petersiel N, Schwartz E. From hydroxychloroquine to ivermectin: what are the anti-viral properties of anti-parasitic drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2? J Travel Med. 2021;28:taab005.
Tang W, Cao Z, Han M, Wang Z, Chen J, Sun W, et al. Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019: open label, randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2020;369:m1849.
Kangbai JB, Sao Babawo L, Kaitibi D, Sandi AA, George AM, Sahr F. Re-reading ACT, BCG, and low COVID-19 in Africa. SN Compr Clin Med. 2021;3:11–5.
Aborode AT, David KB, Uwishema O, Nathaniel AL, Imisioluwa JO, Onigbinde SB, et al. Fighting COVID-19 at the expense of malaria in Africa: the consequences and policy options. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;104:26–9.
Nghochuzie NN, Olwal CO, Udoakang AJ, Amenga-Etego LN, Amambua-Ngwa A. Pausing the fight against malaria to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa: is the future of malaria bleak? Front Microbiol. 2020;11:1476.
Mbunge E, Millham R, Sibiya MN, Takavarasha S. Impact of COVID-19 on malaria elimination: juxtaposing indoor residual spraying and mobile phones in Buhera Rural District, Zimbabwe. 2021. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-173130/v1.
Rogerson SJ, Beeson JG, Laman M, Poespoprodjo JR, William T, Simpson JA, et al. Identifying and combating the impacts of COVID-19 on malaria. BMC Med. 2020;18:239.
Emmanuel Awucha N, Chinelo Janefrances O, Chima Meshach A, Chiamaka Henrietta J, Ibilolia Daniel A, Esther CN. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumers’ access to essential medicines in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103:1630–4.
Amimo F, Lambert B, Magit A, Hashizume M. The potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control in Africa: a systematic review of modelling studies and population surveys. 2020. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-103235/v1
Aïkpon R, Affoukou C, Hounpkatin B, Eclou DD, Cyaka Y, Egwu E, et al. Digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of Covid-19 pandemic in Benin: challenges and lessons learned. Malar J. 2020;19:431.
Shi B, Zheng J, Xia S, Lin S, Wang X, Liu Y, et al. Accessing the syndemic of COVID-19 and malaria intervention in Africa. Infect Dis Poverty. 2021;10:5.
Baral S, Rao A, Twahirwa Rwema JO, Lyons C, Cevik M, Kågesten AE, et al. Competing health risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and response: a scoping review. medRxiv. 2021:2021.01.07.21249419.
Guerra CA, Tresor Donfack O, Motobe Vaz L, Mba Nlang JA, Nze Nchama LO, Mba Eyono JN, et al. Malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa in the time of COVID-19: no room for complacency. BMJ Glob Health. 2020;5:e003880.
The Alliance for Malaria Prevention. 2020 annual report. https://allianceformalariaprevention.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/FINAL-AMP-Annual-Report-2020.pdf.
Newby G, Mpanju-Shumbusho W, Feachem RGA. Global health security requires endemic disease eradication. Lancet. 2021;397:1163–5.
RBM Partnership to end malaria. RBM Partnership to End Malaria position on the next Global Fund strategy. 2020. https://endmalaria.org/sites/default/files/RBM%20Position%20Statement%20on%20Global%20Fund%27s%20Strategy.pdf.
Bell D, Hansen KS, Kiragga AN, Kambugu A, Kissa J, Mbonye AK. Predicting the impact of COVID-19 and the potential impact of the public health response on disease burden in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103:1191–7.
Burt J, Ouma J, Amone A, Aol L, Sekikubo M, Nakimuli A, et al. Indirect effects of COVID-19 on maternal, neonatal, child, sexual and reproductive health services in Kampala, Uganda. medRxiv. 2021:2021.04.23.21255940.
Hategeka C, Carter SE, Chenge FM, Katanga EN, Lurton G, Mayaka SM-N, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and response on the utilisation of health services during the first wave in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. medRxiv. 2021:2021.04.08.21255096.
Gavi S, Tapera O, Mberikunashe J, Kanyangarara M. Malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe during the COVID-19 pandemic: analysis of routine surveillance data. Malar J. 2021;20:233.
Chasaya MPM, Ngomah MA. An update on malaria trends in Zambia (2019 to 2020); a descriptive study. Health Press Zambia Bull. 2020:13–8.
Müller O, Razum O, Jahn A. Effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 on the incidence of other diseases. Lancet Reg Health Eur. 2021;6:100139.
Abbas K, Mogasale V. Disruptions to childhood immunisation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01418-5 (Online ahead of print).
Zawawi A, Alghanmi M, Alsaady I, Gattan H, Zakai H, Couper K. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria elimination. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2020;11:e00187.
Wang J, Xu C, Wong YK, He Y, Adegnika AA, Kremsner PG, et al. Preparedness is essential for malaria-endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2020;395:1094–6.
Velavan TP, Meyer CG, Esen M, Kremsner PG, Ntoumi F, Consortium P-I-NC. COVID-19 and syndemic challenges in ’Battling the Big Three’: HIV, TB and malaria. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;106:29–32.
Nkeshimana M, Nsanzimana S. Malaria or COVID-19? A case report highlighting a diagnostic challenge in Africa. 2021. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-144340/v1
Achan J, Wanzira H, Kyagulanyi T, Nuwa A, Magumba G, Kusasira S, et al. Impact of current malaria infection and previous malaria exposure on the clinical profiles and outcome of COVID-19 in a high malaria transmission setting: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2021. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3844848 (Online ahead of print).
Frosch AE, John CC. Immunomodulation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: experiments in nature and their conflicting implications for potential therapeutic agents. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012;10:1343–56.
Thompson MG, Breiman RF, Hamel MJ, Desai M, Emukule G, Khagayi S, et al. Influenza and malaria coinfection among young children in Western Kenya, 2009–2011. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1674–84.
Edwards CL, Zhang V, Werder RB, Best SE, Sebina I, James KR, et al. Coinfection with blood-stage Plasmodium promotes systemic type i interferon production during pneumovirus infection but impairs inflammation and viral control in the lung. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015;22:477–83.
Hogan AB, Jewell BL, Sherrard-Smith E, Vesga JF, Watson OJ, Whittaker C, et al. Potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria in low-income and middle-income countries: a modelling study. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8:e1132–41.
Figueroa JP, Bottazzi ME, Hotez P, Batista C, Ergonul O, Gilbert S, et al. Urgent needs of low-income and middle-income countries for COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics. Lancet. 2021;397:562–4.
Editorial. The rocky road to universal COVID-19 vaccination. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21:743.
Rahi M, Das P, Sharma A. COVID-19 Mitigation steps provide a blueprint for malaria control and elimination. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103:28–30.
Buonsenso D, Cinicola B, Kallon MN, Iodice F. Child healthcare and immunizations in sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. Front Pediatr. 2020;8:517.
Coker M, Folayan MO, Michelow IC, Oladokun RE, Torbunde N, Sam-Agudu NA. Things must not fall apart: the ripple effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children in sub-Saharan Africa. Pediatr Res. 2021;89:1078–86.
Diongue K, Diallo MA. COVID-19 during malaria transmission season in Africa and why we should be prepared: An example from Senegal. Afr J Lab Med. 2020;9:3.
Inzaule SC, Tessema SK, Kebede Y, Ouma AEO, Nkengasong JN. Genomic-informed pathogen surveillance in Africa: opportunities and challenges. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30939-7 (Online ahead of print).
Makanjuola RO, Ishaleku D, Taylor-Robinson A. COVID-19 and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: holistic diagnostic approaches may promote effective clinical case management. Microb Infect Dis. 2020;1:100–6.
Mvumbi DM. Mass intake of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in the present context of the Covid-19 outbreak: possible consequences in endemic malaria settings. Med Hypotheses. 2020;143:109912.
P.M.I. US President’s malaria initiative. U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative Burkina Faso Malaria Operational Plan FY 2020. www.pmi.gov.
Rosenthal PJ, Breman JG, Djimde AA, John CC, Kamya MR, Leke RGF, et al. COVID-19: shining the light on Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102:1145–8.