WHO. World malaria report 2021. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021.
Gallup JL, Sachs JD. The economic burden of malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;64:85–96.
Haakenstad A, Harle AC, Tsakalos G, Micah AE, Tao T, Anjomshoa M, et al. Tracking spending on malaria by source in 106 countries, 2000–16: an economic modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19:703–16.
WHO. A framework for malaria elimination. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.
WHO. User guide for the malaria strategic and operational plan costing tool. Brazzaville: World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa; 2019.
Arrow KJ, Panosian C, Gelband H. Saving lives, buying time: economics of malaria drugs in an age of resistance. Institute of Medicine Committee on the Economics of Antimalarial Drugs. . Washington: National Academies Press; 2004.
Chima RI, Goodman CA, Mills A. The economic impact of malaria in Africa: a critical review of the evidence. Health Policy. 2003;63:17–36.
Shepard DS, Ettling MB, Brinkmann U, Sauerborn R. The economic cost of malaria in Africa. Trop Med Parasitol. 1991;42:199–203.
Shretta R, Avancena AL, Hatefi A. The economics of malaria control and elimination: a systematic review. Malar J. 2016;15:593.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6: e1000097.
Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ. 2009;339: b2700.
The EndNote Team. EndNote. EndNote X9 edition. Philadelphia: Clarivate; 2013.
Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan-a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2016;5:210.
Higgins JP, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, et al. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 6.0. 2nd Edn. 2019.
CCEMG-EPPI-Centre cost converter; Version 1.4: The Campbell and Cochrane Economics Methods Group (CCEMG) and the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Coordinating Centre (EPPI-Centre) https://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/costconversion/
Drummond MF SM, Claxton K, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. 4th Edn. 2015.
Fukuda H, Imanaka Y. Assessment of transparency of cost estimates in economic evaluations of patient safety programmes. J Eval Clin Pract. 2009;15:451–9.
Silva EN, Galvão TF, Pereira MG, Silva MT. Economic evaluation of health technologies: checklist for critical analysis of published articles. Pan Am J Public Health. 2014;35:219–27.
Devine A, Pasaribu AP, Teferi T, Pham HT, Awab GR, Contantia F, et al. Provider and household costs of Plasmodium vivax malaria episodes: a multicountry comparative analysis of primary trial data. Bull World Health Organ. 2019;97:828–36.
Castillo-Riquelme M, McIntyre D, Barnes K. Household burden of malaria in South Africa and Mozambique: is there a catastrophic impact? Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:108–22.
Sicuri E, Vieta A, Lindner L, Constenla D, Sauboin C. The economic costs of malaria in children in three sub-Saharan countries: Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya. Malar J. 2013;12:307.
Alonso S, Chaccour CJ, Elobolobo E, Nacima A, Candrinho B, Saifodine A, et al. The economic burden of malaria on households and the health system in a high transmission district of Mozambique. Malar J. 2019;18:360.
Jowett M, Miller NJ. The financial burden of malaria in Tanzania: implications for future government policy. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2005;20:67–84.
Singh MP, Saha KB, Chand SK, Sabin LL. The economic cost of malaria at the household level in high and low transmission areas of central India. Acta Trop. 2019;190:344–9.
Chuma J, Okungu V, Molyneux C. The economic costs of malaria in four Kenyan districts: do household costs differ by disease endemicity? Malar J. 2010;9:149.
Somi MF, Butler JR, Vahid F, Njau JD, Kachur SP, Abdulla S. Economic burden of malaria in rural Tanzania: variations by socioeconomic status and season. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1139–47.
Abdel-Hameed AA, Abdalla HM, Alnaury AH. Household expenditure on malaria case management in Wad-Medani. Sudan Afr J Med Med Sci. 2001;30(Suppl):35–8.
Gunda R, Shamu S, Chimbari MJ, Mukaratirwa S. Economic burden of malaria on rural households in Gwanda district, Zimbabwe. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2017;9:e1–6.
Viergever RF, Hendriks TC. The 10 largest public and philanthropic funders of health research in the world: what they fund and how they distribute their funds. Health Res Policy Syst. 2016;14:12.
Head MG, Goss S, Gelister Y, Alegana V, Brown RJ, Clarke SC, et al. Global funding trends for malaria research in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5:e772–81.
Etges APS, Schlatter RP, Neyeloff JL, Araújo DV, Bahia LC, Cruz L, et al. Estudos de Microcusteio aplicados a avaliações econômicas em saúde: uma proposta metodológica para o Brasil. J Bras Econ Saúde. 2019;11:87–95.
Newbrander WL, Lewis E. Hospital costing model manual. Management Sciences for Health. USAID: Health Reform and Financing and Sustainability Project. 1999.
Etges APB, Cruz LN, Notti RK, Neyeloff JL, Schlatter RP, Astigarraga CC, et al. An 8-step framework for implementing time-driven activity-based costing in healthcare studies. Eur J Health Econ. 2019;20:1133–45.
Cavassini ACM, Lima SAM, Calderon IMP, Rudge MVC. Avaliações econômicas em Saúde: apuração de custos no atendimento de gestações complicadas pelo diabete. Rev Adm Saude. 2010;12:23–30.
Beogo I, Huang N, Drabo MK, Ye Y. Malaria related care-seeking-behaviour and expenditures in urban settings: a household survey in Ouagadougou. Burkina Faso Acta Trop. 2016;160:78–85.
Hennessee I, Chinkhumba J, Briggs-Hagen M, Bauleni A, Shah MP, Chalira A, et al. Household costs among patients hospitalized with malaria: evidence from a national survey in Malawi, 2012. Malar J. 2017;16:395.
Sicuri E, Bardaji A, Sanz S, Alonso S, Fernandes S, Hanson K, et al. Patients’ costs, socio-economic and health system aspects associated with malaria in pregnancy in an endemic area of Colombia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12: e0006431.
Karyana M, Devine A, Kenangalem E, Burdarm L, Poespoprodjo JR, Vemuri R, et al. Treatment-seeking behaviour and associated costs for malaria in Papua, Indonesia. Malar J. 2016;15:536.
Onyia VU, Ughasoro MD, Onwujekwe OE. The economic burden of malaria in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020;33:92–5.
Hailu A, Lindtjorn B, Deressa W, Gari T, Loha E, Robberstad B. Economic burden of malaria and predictors of cost variability to rural households in south-central Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12: e0185315.
Xia S, Ma JX, Wang DQ, Li SZ, Rollinson D, Zhou SS, et al. Economic cost analysis of malaria case management at the household level during the malaria elimination phase in The People’s Republic of China. Infect Dis Poverty. 2016;5:50.
Botto-Menezes C, Bardaji A, Dos Santos CG, Fernandes S, Hanson K, Martinez-Espinosa FE, et al. Costs associated with malaria in pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a low endemic area where Plasmodium vivax predominates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10: e0004494.
Rashed S, Johnson H, Dongier P, Moreau R, Lee C, Lambert J, et al. Economic impact of febrile morbidity and use of permethrin-impregnated bed nets in a malarious area I: study of demographics, morbidity, and household expenditures associated with febrile morbidity in the Republic of Benin. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:173–80.
Botega LA, Andrade MV, Guedes GR. Brazilian hospitals’ performance: an assessment of the unified health system (SUS). Health Care Manag Sci. 2020;23:443–52.
Morel CM, Thang ND, Xa NX, le Hung X, le Thuan K, Van Ky P, et al. The economic burden of malaria on the household in south-central Vietnam. Malar J. 2008;7:166.
Tawiah T, Asante KP, Dwommoh RA, Kwarteng A, Gyaase S, Mahama E, et al. Economic costs of fever to households in the middle belt of Ghana. Malar J. 2016;15:68.
Tefera DR, Sinkie SO, Daka DW. Economic burden of malaria and associated factors among rural households in Chewaka District, Western Ethiopia. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2020;12:141–52.
Deressa W, Hailemariam D, Ali A. Economic costs of epidemic malaria to households in rural Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1148–56.
Ilunga-Ilunga F, Leveque A, Okenge Ngongo L, Tshimungu Kandolo F, Dramaix M. Costs of treatment of children affected by severe malaria in reference hospitals of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2014;8:1574–83.
Uguru NP, Onwujekwe OE, Uzochukwu BS, Igiliegbe GC, Eze SB. Inequities in incidence, morbidity and expenditures on prevention and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2009;9:21.
Chuma JM, Thiede M, Molyneux CS. Rethinking the economic costs of malaria at the household level: evidence from applying a new analytical framework in rural Kenya. Malar J. 2006;5:76.
Onwujekwe O, Hanson K, Uzochukwu B, Ichoku H, Ike E, Onwughalu B. Are malaria treatment expenditures catastrophic to different socio-economic and geographic groups and how do they cope with payment? A study in southeast Nigeria. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:18–25.
Ayieko P, Akumu AO, Griffiths UK, English M. The economic burden of inpatient paediatric care in Kenya: household and provider costs for treatment of pneumonia, malaria and meningitis. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2009;7:3.
Onwujekwe O, Uguru N, Etiaba E, Chikezie I, Uzochukwu B, Adjagba A. The economic burden of malaria on households and the health system in Enugu State southeast Nigeria. PLoS ONE. 2013;8: e78362.
Attanayake N, Fox-Rushby J, Mills A. Household costs of “malaria” morbidity: a study in Matale district, Sri Lanka. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5:595–606.
Dalaba MA, Welaga P, Oduro A, Danchaka LL, Matsubara C. Cost of malaria treatment and health seeking behaviour of children under-five years in the Upper West Region of Ghana. PLoS ONE. 2018;13: e0195533.
Gatton ML, Cho MN. Costs to the patient for seeking malaria care in Myanmar. Acta Trop. 2004;92:173–7.
Jackson S, Sleigh AC, Liu XL. Cost of malaria control in China: Henan’s consolidation programme from community and government perspectives. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:653–9.
Moreno-Gutierrez D, Rosas-Aguirre A, Llanos-Cuentas A, Bilcke J, Barboza JL, Hayette MP, et al. Economic costs analysis of uncomplicated malaria case management in the Peruvian Amazon. Malar J. 2020;19:161.
Sicuri E, Davy C, Marinelli M, Oa O, Ome M, Siba P, et al. The economic cost to households of childhood malaria in Papua New Guinea: a focus on intra-country variation. Health Policy Plan. 2012;27:339–47.
Yusuf WA, Yusuf SA, Oladunni OS. Financial burden of malaria treatment by households in Northern Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res. 2019;22:11–8.
Mustafa MH, Babiker MA. Economic cost of malaria on households during a transmission season in Khartoum State, Sudan. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13:1298–307.
Fernández García A, Collazo Herrera M, Mendes NP, Hossi JP. Costos directos sanitarios del paludismo en el Hospital Militar Regional de Uíge. Medisur. 2018;16:6–9.