Skip to content

Advertisement

  • Poster presentations
  • Open Access

Evaluation of in vivo Antiplasmodial Activities of extracts of Morinda morindiodes (Bak.) in the treatment of malaria in Ogun State

  • 1,
  • 1,
  • 1 and
  • 1
Malaria Journal20109 (Suppl 2) :P51

https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-9-S2-P51

  • Published:

Keywords

  • Starch
  • Malaria
  • Untreated Control
  • Plant Extract
  • Plasmodium
In vivo study of various plant parts extracts of Morinda morindiodes (Bak.) was conducted to evaluate their antiplasmodial properties and effects on the liver using chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei in mice. Water extract of the root was observed to significantly reduce parasitaemia (70%, P<0.05) compared to the activities of other plant parts and the untreated control. A mean survival time of 19 days observed in the root extract supported its antiplasmodial activities compared with other plant parts. The antiplasmodial activities of the plant extracts when administered twice daily were not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared with those treated once daily. The chemosuppression produced by the extracts were significantly different compared to untreated control. Liver function tests (LFT) of uninfected mice administered with the plant extracts showed that extracts of the leaf and stem in 'fermented maize starch extract' altered the function of the liver significantly compared to normal mice. This study shows that Morinda morindiodes possess antimalarial properties and the root may be used as a prophylaxis where western medicine is not easily accessible and affordable. Tables 1, 2, 3, 4
Table 1

Chemosuppression and survival time of P. berghei infected mice treated orally with Morinda morindiodes extracts at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight once a day for 5 days

Plant part

Extract

%chemosuppression of parasitaemia at day 5 (C.P.±S.D)

%chemosuppression of parasitaemia at day 11 (C.P.±S.D)

Mean Survival time (days)

Leaf

MeOH

7.5 ± 2.8b

82.4±5.6e

19.5

Water

10±2.8bc

72.6±8.4bc

16.5

 

F.M. starch

7.5 ± 2.8b

78.8 ± 9.9d

16.5

 

Stem

MeOH

0 ± 2.8a

60.8 ± 5.6a

16.5

Water

1.3 ± 1.41ab

72.2 ± 14.8bc

15.5

 

F.M. starch

5.0 ± 2.8b

71.6 ± 0.0bc

16.5

 

Root

MeOH

20.5 ± 22.6bc

67.3 ± 7.07b

18.5

Water

52.5±2.8d

76.5 ± 0.0cd

19.5

 

F.M. starch

30±8.5c

79.1 ± 0.0d

19.5

 

Chloroquine

 

100 ± 0.0e

 

28.5

Artesunate

 

100 ± 0.0e

 

28.5

Control

 

0.0

 

14.5

MeOH, methanol extract; F.M. starch, "aqueous fermented maize starch ('omidun') extract".

Table 2

Chemosuppression and survival time of P. berghei infected mice treated orally with Morinda morindiodes extracts at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight twice a day for 5 days

Plant part

Extract

%chemosuppression of parasitaemia at day 5 (C.P.±S.D)

%chemosuppression of parasitaemia at day 11 (C.P.±S.D)

Mean Survival time (days)

Leaf

MeOH

20 ±16.9a

83.7±8.5c

21.5

Water

5.0 ± 5.6ab

76.1 ± 1.4bc

17.5

 

F.M. starch

27.5 ± 2 8abc

79.4 ± 24.1bc

17.5

 

Stem

MeOH

1.3 ± 11.3a

73.2 ± 25.4b

16.5

Water

2.5 ±28.2a

71.2±2.8b

16.5

 

F.M. starch

10.0±5.6ab

76.5 ± 9.9bc

17.5

 

Root

MeOH

35 ± 5.6bc

80.4±28.2bc

19.5

Water

70.0 ± 2.8de

85.9±8.4bc

21.5

 

F.M. starch

56.2 ± 7.1cd

85.6±8.4c

17.5

 

Chloroquine

 

100 ± 0.0e

 

28.5

Artesunate

 

100 ± 0.0e

 

28.5

Control

 

0.0

 

14.5

MeOH, methanol extract; F.M. starch, "aqueous fermented maize starch ('omidun') extract".

Table 3

Comparison between the liver function tests in mice treated with extracts and control group (untreated)

 

Leaf extracts

Stem extracts

Root extracts

Contrl

Test

WL

F.M.L

WS

F.M.S

WR

F.M.R

INT.

Treated Once Daily

       

Total protein(g/l)

53a

58.8b

61.7c

62.4cd

63.5cd

52.8a

65.1d

Cholesterol (mg/dl)

88.7b

102.3d

106.9e

95.2c

87.2b

63.6a

106.9e

SGOT (iu/l)

66c

67c

85d

91e

67c

30a

44b

SGPT (iu/l)

17ab

20b

18b

13a

28c

25c

27c

Urea (mg/dl)

24.5a

28.35c

25.7ab

26.5bc

26.5bc

28.35c

28c

Alkaline phosphatase (iu/l)

95e

80d

78c

47ab

40a

62b

 

Treated twice Daily

       

Total protein(g/l)

60.8c

50.4b

76.7e

46a

75.5e

65.9d

65.1d

Cholesterol (mg/dl)

98.2f

75.4b

83.6c

92.7e

60.9a

87.1d

106.9g

SGOT (iu/l)

43c

92d

36b

93 d

35b

19a

44c

SGPT (iu/l)

23c

22.5c

15ab

23c

12a

17b

27d

Urea (mg/dl)

22.5a

25.05b

27.3c

25.1b

24.2ab

24.2ab

28C

Alkaline phospatase (iu/l)

29a

58d

63d

37b

34ab

60cd

62d

WL, water extract of leaf; F.M. L, aqueous fermented maize starch extract of leaf.

Table 4

Phytochemical analysis of the various plant parts of Morinda morindiodes

 

Plant Parts / Quantity of Compound

  

Investigated Compounds

Leaf

Stem

Root

Alkaloid (g/100g)

1.42

1.96

1.62

Saponin (g/100g)

25.3

26.1

22.5

Tannin (mg/100g)

46.2

49.2

38.55

Flavonoid (mg/100g)

14.2

10.4

12.1

Glycocyanides (mg/100g)

0.98

1.06

1.12

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

References

  1. Abosi AO, Raseroka BH: In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina. British Journal of Biomedical Science. 2003, 60 (22): 89-91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajaiyeoba EO, Oladepo O, Fawole OI, Bolaji OM, Akinboye DO, Ogundahunsi OAT, Falade CO, Gbotosho GO, Itiola OA, Happi TC, Ebong OO, Ononimu IM, Osowole OS, Oduola OO, Ashidi JS, Oduola AMJ: Cultural categorization of febril illnesses in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003, 85: 179-185. 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00357-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrade-Neto VF, Brandao MG, Stehman JR, Oliveira LA, Krettli AU: Antimalarial activity of Cinchona-like plants used to treat fever and malaria in Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003, 87: 253-256. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00141-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Harborne JB: Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques to Plant Analysis. 1987, London, Chapman and Hall, 56-79. 3rd ednGoogle Scholar
  5. Idowu OA, Soniran OT, Ajana O, Aworinde DO: Ethnobotanical Survey of antimalarial plants used in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010, 4: 55-60.Google Scholar

Copyright

© Temidayo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Please note that comments may be removed without notice if they are flagged by another user or do not comply with our community guidelines.

Advertisement