WHO: World Malaria Report 2013. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2013. http://www.who.int/iris/…/9789241564694_eng.pdf. Accessed 24 Sept 2014.
Stevens GA, Finucane MM, De-Regil LM, Paciorek CJ, Flaxman SR, Branca F, et al. Global regional, and national trends in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population representative data. Lancet Global Health. 2013;1:16–25.
UNICEF: United Nations Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Levels and trends in child mortality. 2014, New York: United Nations Children’s Fund. http://www.childmortality.org/files_v17/download/UNICEF%202014%20IGME%20child%20mortality%20Report_Final.pdf. Accessed 12 Oct 2014.
WHO. Guideline: Updates on the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children 2012, Geneva: World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/95584/1/9789241506328_eng.pdf. Accessed 13 Mar 2014.
Hall A, Khanh LN, Son TH, Dung NQ, Lansdown RG, Dar DT, et al. An association between chronic undernutrition and educational test scores in Vietnamese children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:801–4.
Grantham-McGregor S, Ani C. A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr. 2001;131:649S–66S.
Agarwal DK, Upadhyay SK, Agarwal KN. Influence of malnutrition on cognitive development assessed by Piagetian tasks. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1989;78:115–22.
Hutchinson SE, Powell CA, Chang SPW, Grantham-Mc SM, Gregor SM. Nutrition, anaemia, geohelminth infection and school achievement in rural Jamaican primary school children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51:729–35.
Müller O, Traore C, Jahn A, Becher H. Severe anaemia in west African children: malaria or malnutrition? Lancet. 2003;361:86–7.
Best C, Neufingerl N, van Geel L, van den Briel T, Osendarp S. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care? Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31:400–17.
Menendez C, Fleming AF, Alonso PL. Malaria-related anaemia. Parasitol Today. 2000;16:469–76.
Kabatereine NB, Brooker S, Koukounari A, Kazibwe F, Tukahebwa EM, Fleming FM, et al. Impact of a national helminth control programme on infection and morbidity in Ugandan schoolchildren. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:91–9.
Morris CR, Singer ST, Walters MC. Clinical hemoglobinopathies: iron, lungs and new blood. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006;13:407–18.
Wambua S, Mwangi TW, Kortok M, Uyoga SM, Macharia AW, Mwacharo JK, et al. The effect of thalassaemia on the incidence of malaria and other diseases in children living on the coast of Kenya. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e158.
Ehrhardt S, Burchard GD, Mantel C, Cramer JP, Kaiser S, Kubo M, et al. Malaria, anemia, and malnutrition in children—defining intervention priorities. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:108–14.
Green H, Sousa-Figueiredo J, Basáñez M, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Fenwick A, et al. Anaemia in Ugandan preschool-aged children: the relative contribution of intestinal parasites and malaria. Parasitology. 2011;138:1534–45.
Mockenhaupt FP, Ehrhardt S, Burkhardt J, Bosomtwe SY, Laryea S, Anemana SD, et al. Manifestation and outcome of severe malaria in children in northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:167–72.
Deen JL, Walraven GE, von Seidlein L. Increased risk for malaria in chronically malnourished children under 5 years of age in rural Gambia. J Trop Pediatr. 2002;48:78.
Friedman JF, Kwena AM, Mirel LB, Kariuki SK, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA, et al. Malaria and nutritional status among pre-school children: results from cross-sectional surveys in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:698–704.
Snow RW, Byass P, Shenton FC. The relationship between anthropometric measurements and measurements of iron status and susceptibility to malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85:584–9.
Nyakeriga AM, Troye-Blomberg M, Chemtai AK, Marsh K, Williams TN. Malaria and nutritional status in children living on the coast of Kenya. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1604–10.
Bayley NB. Scales of Infant Development. 2nd ed. San Antonio: PsychCorp Harcourt Assessment, Inc.; 1993.
Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Kirkwood BR, Gilles HM. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. III. Its effect on nutrition. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1985;79:575–84.
Ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Kariuki SK, Phillips-Howard PA, Mirel LB, Hawley WA, et al. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria, anemia, and growth in infants in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:68–77.
Rulisa S, Kateera F, Bizimana JP, Agaba S, Dukuzumuremyi J, Baas L, et al. Malaria prevalence, spatial clustering and risk factors in a low endemic area of eastern Rwanda: a cross sectional study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e69443.
Kateera F, Mens PF, Hakizimana E, Ingabire CM, Muragijemariya L, Karinda P, et al. Malaria parasite carriage and risk determinants in a rural population: a malariometric survey in Rwanda. Malar J. 2015;14:16.
Hartung C, Anokwa Y, Brunette W, Lerel A, Tseng C, Boriello G. Open Data Kit: tools to build information services for developing regions. Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD). 2010. London, UK. http://opendatakit.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/ODK-Paper-ICTD-2010.pdf. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
Stoltzfus RJ. Rethinking anaemia surveillance. Lancet. 1997;349:1764–6.
WHO. Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/en/. Accessed 13 Nov 2014.
Yvas S, Kumaranayake L. Constructing socio-economic status indices: how to use principal components analysis. Health Policy Plan. 2006;21:459–68.
National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda: Rwanda Demographic Health Survey. 2010. http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR259/FR259.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2014.
Winskill P, Rowland M, Mtove G, Malima RC, Kirby MJ. Malaria risk factors in north-east Tanzania. Malar J. 2011;10:98.
Smith T, Hii JL, Genton B, Müller I, Booth M, Gibson N, et al. Associations of peak shifts in age-prevalence for human malarias with bednet coverage. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001;95:1–6.
Luckner D, Lell B, Greve B, Lehman LG, Schmidt-Ott RJ, Matousek P, et al. No influence of socioeconomic factors on severe malarial anaemia, hyperparasitaemia or reinfection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998;92:478–81.
Osterbauer B, Kapisi J, Bigira V, Mwangwa F, Kinara S, Kamya MR, et al. Factors associated with malaria parasitaemia, malnutrition, and anaemia among HIV-exposed and unexposed Ugandan infants: a cross-sectional survey. Malar J. 2012;11:432.
Yé Y, Hoshen M, Louis V, Séraphin S, Traoré I, Sauerborn R. Housing conditions and Plasmodium falciparum infection: protective effect of iron-sheet roofed houses. Malar J. 2006;5:8.
Koram KA, Bennett S, Adiamah JH, Greenwood BM. Socio-economic risk factors for malaria in a peri-urban area of The Gambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995;89:146–50.
Tshikuka JG, Scott ME, Gray-Donald K, Kalumba ON. Multiple infection with Plasmodium and helminths in communities of low and relatively high socio-economic status. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1996;90:277–93.
Messina JP, Taylor SM, Meshnick SR, Linke AM, Tshefu AK, Atua B, et al. Population, behavioural and environmental drivers of malaria prevalence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Malar J. 2011;10:161.
Atieli H, Menya D, Githeko A, Scott T. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya. Malar J. 2009;8:108.
Kirby MJ, Green C, Milligan PM, Sismanidis C, Jasseh M, Conway DJ, et al. Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia. Malar J. 2008;7:2.
Harbison JE, Mathenge EM, Misiani GO, Mukabana WR, Day JF. A simple method for sampling indoor-resting malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Africa. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:473–9.
Lwetoijera DW, Kiware SS, Mageni ZD, Dongus S, Harris C, Devine GJ, et al. A need for better housing to further reduce indoor malaria transmission in areas with high bed net coverage. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:57.
McElroy PD, ter Kuile FO, Lal AA, Bloland PB, Hawley WA, Oloo AJ, et al. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia density on hemoglobin concentrations among full-term, normal birth weight children in western Kenya, IV. The Asembo Bay Cohort Project. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:504–12.
Bloland PB, Boriga DA, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Roberts JM, Oloo AJ, et al. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission II. Descriptive epidemiology of malaria infection and disease among children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;60:641–8.
Korenromp EL, Armstrong-Schellenberg JR, Williams BG, Nahlen BL, Snow RW. Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa—a quantitative review. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:1050–65.
Mathanga DP, Campbell CH, Vanden J, Wolkon EA, Bronzan RN, Malenga GJ, et al. Comparison of anaemia and parasitaemia as indicators of malaria control in household and EPI-health facility surveys in Malawi. Malar J. 2010;9:107.
Knoblauch AM, Winkler MS, Archer C, Divall MJ, Owuor M, Yapo RM, et al. The epidemiology of malaria and anaemia in the Bonikro mining area, central Côte d’Ivoire. Malar J. 2014;13:194.
Müller O, Garenne M, Kouyate B, Becher H. The association between protein-energy malnutrition, malaria morbidity and all-cause mortality in West African children. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:507–11.
Medhin G, Hanlon C, Dewey M, Alem A, Tesfaye F, Worku B, et al. Prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: the P-MaMiE birth cohort. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:27.
Wamani H, Astrom AN, Peterson S, Tumwine JK, Tylleskär T. Boys are more stunted than girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys. BMC Pediatr. 2007;7:17.
Deribew A, Alemseged F, Tessema F, Sena L, Birhanu Z, Zeynudin A, et al. Malaria and under-nutrition: a community based study among under-five children at risk of malaria, south-west Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2010;5:e10775.
Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey: 2005. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Agency and ORC. http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR179/FR179[23June2011].pdf. Accessed 13 Jul 2014.