Abdesslam B. Evolution of rural-urban health gaps in Morocco: 1992–2011. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:381.
Fotso J. Urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition: trends and socioeconomic correlates in sub-Saharan Africa. Health Place. 2007;13:205–23.
Fotso JC. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas. Int J Equity Health. 2006;5:9.
Fox K, Heaton TB. Child nutritional status by rural/urban residence: a cross-national analysis. J Rural Health. 2012;28:380–91.
Govoetchan R, Gnanguenon V, Azond´ekon R, Agossa RF, Sovi A, Ok´e-Agbo F et al. Evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the Sudanian climate of Kandi, Northeastern Benin. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:79.
Harris B, Goudge J, Ataguba JE, McIntyre D, Nxumalo N, Jikwana S, et al. Inequities in access to health care in South Africa. J Public Health Policy. 2011;32(Suppl 1):S102–23.
Johnson GZ. Health conditions in rural and urban areas of developing countries. Popul Stud. 1964;17:293.
Liu H, Fang H, Zhao Z. Urban-rural disparities of child health and nutritional status in China from 1989 to 2006. Econ Hum Biol. 2013;11:294.
Matthews Z, Channon A, Neal S, Osrin D, Madise N, Stones W. Examining the ”urban advantage” in maternal health care in developing countries. PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000327.
Molyneux C, Harpham T. Urban health in developing countries: a review. Progr Development Studies. 2001;1:113.
Nandita S, Abhishek S, Domantas J, Faujdar R. Explaining the rural-urban gap in infant mortality in India. Demographic Res. 2013;29:473.
Okeke TA, Okeibunor JC. Rural–urban differences in health-seeking for the treatment of childhood malaria in south-east Nigeria. Health Policy. 2010;95:62.
Menashe-Oren A, Stecklov G. Urban-rural disparities in adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Demographic Res. 2018;39:136–76.
Beatriz ED, Molnar BE, Griffith JL, Salhi C. Urban-rural disparity and urban population growth: a multilevel analysis of under-5 mortality in 30 sub-Saharan African countries. Health Place. 2018;52:196–204.
Vlahov D, Galea S. Urbanization, urbanicity, and health. J Urban Health. 2002;79(4 Suppl 1):S1–12.
Dahly DL, Adair LS. Quantifying the urban environment: a scale measure of urbanicity outperforms the urban–rural dichotomy. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64:1407–19.
Novak NL, Allender S, Scarborough P, West D. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:530.
Allender S, Wickramasinghe K, Goldacre M, Matthews D, Katulanda P. Quantifying urbanization as a risk factor for noncommunicable disease. J Urban Health. 2011;88:906–18.
Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P. The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:S2–9.
Hermosillo-Gallardo ME, Jago R, Sebire SJ. Association between urbanicity and physical activity in Mexican adolescents: the use of a composite urbanicity measure. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0204739.
Dal’Asta AP, Lana RM, Amaral S, Codeco CT, Monteiro AMV. The urban gradient in malaria-endemic municipalities in Acre: revisiting the role of locality. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15:1254.
Dear NF, Kadangwe C, Mzilahowa T, Bauleni A, Mathanga DP, Duster C, et al. Household-level and surrounding peri-domestic environmental characteristics associated with malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus along an urban–rural continuum in Blantyre. Malawi Malar J. 2018;17:229.
Alirol E, Getaz L, Stoll B, Chappuis F, Loutan L. Urbanisation and infectious diseases in a globalised world. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:131–41.
Wilson ML, Krogstad DJ, Arinaitwe E, Arevalo-Herrera M, Chery L, Ferreira MU, et al. Urban malaria: understanding its epidemiology, ecology, and transmission across seven diverse ICEMR network sites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93(3 Suppl):110–23.
Robert V, Macintyre K, Keating J, Trape JF, Duchemin JB, Warren M, et al. Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:169–76.
Lourenco AE. The meaning of ’rural’ in rural health: a review and case study from Brazil. Glob Public Health. 2012;7:1–13.
Spiegel JM, Yassi A. Lessons from the margins of globalization: appreciating the Cuban health paradox. J Public Health Policy. 2004;25:85.
Jack W, Suri T. Risk sharing and transactions costs: evidence from Kenya’s mobile money revolution. Am Econ Rev. 2014;104:183.
Khanbhai M, Lutomia MBL. Motorcycle accident injuries seen at Kakamega Provincial Hospital in Kenya. East Central Afr J Surg. 2012;17:43–6.
Lamont M. Speed governors: road safety and infrastructural overload in post-colonial Kenya, c. 1963–2013. Africa. 2013;83:367–84.
Mogaka EO, Ng’ang’a Z, Oundo J, Omolo J, Luman E. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya. Pan Afr Med J. 2011;8:20.
Otieno T, Woodfield JC, Bird P, Hill AG. Trauma in rural Kenya. Injury. 2004;35:1228.
Jones-Smith J, Popkin B. Understanding community context and adult health changes in China: development of an urbanicity scale. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71:1436–46.
Cyril S, Oldroyd J, Renzaho A. Urbanisation, urbanicity, and health: a systematic review of the reliability and validity of urbanicity scales. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:513.
Hay SI, Guerra CA, Tatem AJ, Atkinson PM, Snow RW. Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:81–90.
Keiser J, Utzinger J, Caldas de Castro M, Smith T, Tanner M, Singer B. Urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa and implication for malaria control. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:118–27.
Kelly-Hope LA, McKenzie FE. The multiplicity of malaria transmission: a review of entomological inoculation rate measurements and methods across sub-Saharan Africa. Malar J. 2009;8:19.
Killeen GF, McKenzie FE, Foy BD, Schieffelin C, Billingsley PF, Beier JC. A simplified model for predicting malaria entomologic inoculation rates based on entomologic and parasitologic parameters relevant to control. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:535–44.
Smith DL, McKenzie FE. Statics and dynamics of malaria infection in Anopheles mosquitoes. Malar J. 2004;3:13.
Trape JF. The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;64(1–2 Suppl):12.
Lindsay SW, Campbell H, Adiamah JH, Greenwood AM, Bangali JE, Greenwood BM. Malaria in a peri-urban area of The Gambia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1990;84:553–62.
Lindsay SW, Emerson PM, Charlwood JD. Reducing malaria by mosquito-proofing houses. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:510–4.
Alemu A, Tsegaye W, Golassa L, Abebe G. Urban malaria and associated risk factors in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia. Malar J. 2011;10:173.
Mzilahowa T, Luka-Banda M, Uzalili V, Mathanga DP, Campbell CH, Mukaka M, et al. Risk factors for Anopheles mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of Blantyre District. Southern Malawi Malawi Med J. 2016;28:151–8.
Tatem AJ, Gething PW, Smith DL, Hay SI. Urbanization and the global malaria recession. Malar J. 2013;12:133.
Larson PS, Mathanga DP, Campbell CH, Wilson ML. Distance to health services influences insecticide-treated net possession and use among six to 59 month-old children in Malawi. Malar J. 2012;11:18.
WHO. World Malaria Report 2008. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
Dommenget D, Latif M. A cautionary note on the interpretation of EOFs. J Climate. 2002;15:216–25.
Filmer D, Pritchett LH. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data—or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography. 2001;38:115–32.
Sumanik-Leary J, Org M, Little M, Persson J, Kalonga C, Eales A, et al. Market assessment for locally manufactured PV-wind hybrid systems in Malawi. University of Strathclyde; 2016.
Hijmans R, Guarino L, Bussink C, Mathur P, Cruz M, Barrentes. A geographic information system for the analysis of species distribution data. Bioinformatics. 2004;19.
Tatem AJ, Gething P, Weiss D, Bhatt S, Pezzulo C. Pilot high resolution poverty maps. University of Southampton, 2013.
ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10.
Carter R, Mendis K, Roberts D. Spatial targeting of interventions against malaria. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:1401–11.
Nesbitt RC, Gabrysch S, Laub A, Soremekun S, Manu A, Kirkwood BR, et al. Methods to measure potential spatial access to delivery care in low- and middle-income countries: a case study in rural Ghana. Int J Health Geogr. 2014;13:25.
Jones SG, Ashby AJ, Momin SR, Naidoo A. Spatial Implications associated with using euclidean distance measurements and geographic centroid imputation in health care research. Health Serv Res. 2010;45:316–27.
Noor AM, Amin AA, Gething PW, Atkinson PM, Hay SI, Snow RW. Modelling distances travelled to government health services in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:188–96.
Shahid R, Bertazzon S, Knudtson M, Ghali W. Comparison of distance measures in spatial analytical modeling for health service planning. BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:200.
Boscoe FP, Henry KA, Zdeb MS. A nationwide comparison of driving distance versus straight-line distance to hospitals. Prof Geogr. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1080/00330124.2011.583586.
Akaike H. Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. New York: Springer; 1998. p. 199–213.
Fawcett T. An introduction to ROC analysis. Pattern Recogn Lett. 2006;27:861–74.
R Core Team; R Foundation for statistical computing. R: A Language and environment for statistical computing. 2020.
Mendis C, Jacobsen JL, Gamage-Mendis A, Bule E, Dgedge M, Thompson R, et al. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus are equally important vectors of malaria in Matola coastal suburb of Maputo, southern Mozambique. Med Vet Entomol. 2000;14:171–80.
Vezenegho SB, Chiphwanya J, Hunt RH, Coetzee M, Bass C, Koekemoer LL. Characterization of the Anopheles funestus group, including Anopheles funestus-like, from Northern Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2013;107:753–62.
Kreuels B, Kobbe R, Adjei S, Kreuzberg C, von Reden C, B¨ater K et al. Spatial variation of malaria incidence in young children from a geographically homogeneous area with high endemicity. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:85–93.
Varela C, Young S, Mkandawire N, Groen RS, Banza L, Viste A. Transportation barriers to access health care for surgical conditions in Malawi: a cross sectional nationwide household survey. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:264.
Eide AH, Mannan H, Khogali M, Van Rooy G, Swartz L, Munthali A, et al. Perceived barriers for accessing health services among individuals with disability in four African countries. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0125915.
Palk L, Okano JT, Dullie L, Blower S. Travel time to health-care facilities, mode of transportation, and HIV elimination in Malawi: a geospatial modelling analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8:e1555–64.
Lowe R, Chirombo J, Tompkins AM. Relative importance of climatic, geographic and socio-economic determinants of malaria in Malawi. Malar J. 2013;12:416.
Roca-Feltrer A, Kwizombe CJ, Sanjoaquin MA, Sesay SS, Faragher B, Harrison J, et al. Lack of decline in childhood malaria, Malawi, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:272–8.
De Silva PM, Marshall JM. Factors contributing to urban malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. J Trop Med. 2012;2012:819563.
Nduka F, Kalu K. A comparative study of malaria parasitemia in urban and rural areas of South East Nigeria. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:129–30.
Rakotomanana F, Ratovonjato J, Randremanana R, Randrianasolo L, Raherinjafy R, Rudant JP, et al. Geographical and environmental approaches to urban malaria in Antananarivo (Madagascar). BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:173.
Ngom R, Siegmund A. Urban malaria in Africa: an environmental and socio-economic modelling approach for Yaound´e. Cameroon Natural Hazards. 2010;55:599–619.
Thwing JI, Mihigo J, Fernandes AP, Saute F, Ferreira C, Fortes F, et al. How much malaria occurs in urban Luanda, Angola? A health facility-based assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:487–91.
Siri JG, Lindblade KA, Rosen DH, Onyango B, Vulule JM, Slutsker L, et al. A census-weighted, spatially-stratified household sampling strategy for urban malaria epidemiology. Malar J. 2008;7:39.
Wang SJ, Lengeler C, Mtasiwa D, Mshana T, Manane L, Maro G, et al. Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) II: epidemiology of urban malaria in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Malar J. 2006;5:28.