WHO. World malaria report 2019. Geneva, World Health Organization. 2019. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241565721. Accessed 10 Aug 2020.
WHO: World malaria report 2020: 20 years of global progress and challenges. Geneva, World Health Organization. 2019. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015791. Accessed 19 May 2021.
United States President’s Malaria Initiative. Zambia malaria operational plan FY 2020. https://www.pmi.gov/docs/default-source/default-document-library/malaria-operational-plans/fy20/fy-2020-zambia-malaria-operational-plan.pdf (2020). Accessed 26 May 2021.
Ministry of Health. National malaria elimination strategic plan 2017–2021. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/58d002f017bffcf99fe21889/t/5b28d7f1575d1ff0942dbce1/1529403401067/National+Malaria+Elimination+Strategic+Plan+2017-Final_PRINT.pdf (2017). Accessed 29 Sep 2020.
Inambao A, Kumar R, Hamainza B, Makasa M, Nielsen C, Inambao AB. Malaria incidence in Zambia, 2013 to 2015: observations from the health management information system. 2017. http://znphi.co.zm/thehealthpress/malaria-incidence-in-zambia-2013-to-2015-observations-from-the-health-management-information-system/. Accessed 30 Dec 2020.
Desai M, Kuile FO, ter, Nosten F, McGready R, Asamoa K, Brabin B, et al. Epidemiology and burden of malaria in pregnancy. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:105–17.
Taylor SM, Kuile FO ter. Stillbirths: the hidden burden of malaria in pregnancy. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5:e1052–3.
Eisele TP, Larsen DA, Anglewicz PA, Keating J, Yukich J, Bennett A, et al. Malaria prevention in pregnancy, birthweight, and neonatal mortality: a meta-analysis of 32 national cross-sectional datasets in Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:942–9.
Touré AA, Doumbouya A, Diallo A, Loua G, Cissé A, Sidibé S, et al. Malaria associated factors among pregnant women in Guinea. J Trop Med. 2019;2019:3925094.
Gontie GB, Wolde HF, Baraki AG. Prevalence and associated factors of malaria among pregnant women in Sherkole district, Benishangul Gumuz regional state, West Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20:573.
Feleke DG, Adamu A, Gebreweld A, Tesfaye M, Demisiss W, Molla G. Asymptomatic malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in malaria endemic areas of North-Shoa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Malar J. 2020;19:67.
Gamble C, Ekwaru PJ, Garner P, ter Kuile FO. Insecticide-treated nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e107.
Njagi JK, Magnussen P, Estambale B, Ouma J, Mugo B. Prevention of anaemia in pregnancy using insecticide-treated bednets and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in a highly malarious area of Kenya: a randomized controlled trial. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:277–82.
ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Friedman JF, Kariuki SK, et al. Reduction of malaria during pregnancy by permethrin-treated bed nets in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68(4 Suppl):50–60.
Masaninga F, Mukumbuta N, Ndhlovu K, Hamainza B, Wamulume P, Chanda E, et al. Insecticide-treated nets mass distribution campaign: benefits and lessons in Zambia. Malar J. 2018;17:173.
Nawa M, Hangoma P, Morse AP, Michelo C. Investigating the upsurge of malaria prevalence in Zambia between 2010 and 2015: a decomposition of determinants. Malar J. 2019;18:61.
Ministry of Health. National malaria control programme strategic plan for fy 2011 2015, report. https://extranet.who.int/countryplanningcycles/sites/default/files/planning_cycle_repository/zambia/zambia_malaria_nsp_2011-2015_.pdf (2011). Accessed 10 Sep 2020.
Ministry of Health. Zambia demographic and health survey 2018. https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR361/FR361.pdf (2020). Accessed 10 Jun 2020.
Ankomah A, Adebayo SB, Arogundade ED, Anyanti J, Nwokolo E, Ladipo O, et al. Determinants of insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization among pregnant women in Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:105.
Inungu JN, Ankiba N, Minelli M, Mumford V, Bolekela D, Mukoso B, et al. Use of insecticide-treated mosquito net among pregnant women and guardians of children under five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malar Res Treat. 2017;2017:5923696.
Muhumuza E, Namuhani N, Balugaba BE, Namata J, Ekirapa Kiracho E. Factors associated with use of malaria control interventions by pregnant women in Buwunga subcounty, Bugiri District. Malar J. 2016;15:342.
Hill J, Kayentao K, Touré M, Diarwara S, Bruce J, Smedley J, et al. Effectiveness of antenatal clinics to deliver intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide treated nets for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Mali: a household survey. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92102.
Mbengue MAS, Bei AK, Mboup A, Ahouidi A, Sarr M, Mboup S, et al. Factors influencing the use of malaria prevention strategies by women in Senegal: a cross-sectional study. Malar J. 2017;16:470.
Choonara S, Odimegwu CO, Elwange BC. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention methods during pregnancy in Kenya. Afr Health Sci. 2015;15:413–9.
Belay M, Deressa W. Use of insecticide treated nets by pregnant women and associated factors in a pre-dominantly rural population in northern Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:1303–13.
Ezire O, Adebayo SB, Idogho O, Bamgboye EA, Nwokolo E. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Int J Womens Health. 2015;7:655–61.
Wafula ST, Mendoza H, Nalugya A, Musoke D, Waiswa P. Determinants of uptake of malaria preventive interventions among pregnant women in eastern Uganda. Malar J. 2021;20:5.
Leonard N, Eric FB, Judith A-KK, Samuel W. Factors associated to the use of insecticide treated nets and intermittent preventive treatment for malaria control during pregnancy in Cameroon. Arch Public Health. 2012;74:5.
Ankomah A, Adebayo SB, Arogundade ED, Anyanti J, Nwokolo E, Inyang U, et al. The effect of mass media campaign on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Malar Res Treat. 2014;2014:694863.
Nkoka O, Chuang T-W, Chuang K-Y, Chen Y-H. Factors associated with insecticide-treated net usage among women of childbearing age in Malawi: a multilevel analysis. Malar J. 2018;17:372.
Austin P, Brunner L. Inflation of the type I error rate when a continuous confounding variable is categorized in logistic regression analyses. Stat Med. 2004;23:1159–78.
Bigelow CA, Khander A, Robles BN, Rekawek P, Cadet J, Pan S, et al. Grand multiparity and great grand multiparity: obstetric risks in a contemporary cohort. Am J Obst Gynecol. 2019;220:105–6.
Çevik S, Yılmaz H, Kaplan A, Yetkinel S, Evran Ş, Çalış F, et al. Association between parity and lumbar spine degenerative disorders in young women. Brit J Neurosurg. 2020;34:172–5.
Ministry of Health. Zambia national malaria indicator survey 2018. https://www.malariasurveys.org/documents/Zambia_MIS2018_FINAL-withSigs_20190415.pdf (2018). Accessed on 17 Sep 2020.
Pulford J, Hetzel MW, Bryant M, Siba PM, Mueller I. Reported reasons for not using a mosquito net when one is available: a review of the published literature. Malar J. 2011;10:83.
Pinchoff J, Hamapumbu H, Kobayashi T, Simubali L, Stevenson J, Norris D, et al. Factors associated with sustained use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets following a reduction in malaria transmission in Southern Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:954–60.
Hill J, Hoyt J, Eijk AM van, D’Mello-Guyett L, Kuile FO ter, Steketee R, et al. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001488.
Smithuis FM, Kyaw MK, Phe UO, van der Broek I, Katterman N, Rogers C, et al. The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on the incidence and prevalence of malaria in children in an area of unstable seasonal transmission in western Myanmar. Malar J. 2013;12:363.
Koenker H, Taylor C, Burgert-Brucker CR, Thwing J, Fish T, Kilian A. Quantifying Seasonal Variation in Insecticide-Treated Net Use among Those with Access. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Aug;101(2):371–82.
Olapeju B, Choiriyyah I, Lynch M, Acosta A, Blaufuss S, Filemyr E, et al. Age and gender trends in insecticide-treated net use in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-country analysis. Malar J. 2018;17:423.
Babalola S, Ricotta E, Awantang G, Lewicky N, Koenker H, Toso M. Correlates of intra-household ITN use in Liberia: a multilevel analysis of household survey data. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158331.
Endo N, Eltahir EAB. Environmental determinants of malaria transmission in African villages. Malar J. 2016;15:578.
Tassembedo M, Coulibaly S, Ouedrago B. Factors associated with the use of insecticide-treated nets: analysis of the 2018 Burkina Faso malaria indicator survey. 2020. https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/WP169/WP169.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2021.
Song JS, Paul MM, Dhakal S, Smith MK, Michel MK, Cha E, et al. Analysis of insecticide-treated net use by pregnant women: implications for donor organizations. J Lifestyle Med. 2016;6:36–42.
Aberese-Ako M, Magnussen P, Ampofo GD, Tagbor H. Health system, socio-cultural, economic, environmental and individual factors influencing bed net use in the prevention of malaria in pregnancy in two Ghanaian regions. Malar J. 2019;18:363.
Balami AD, Said SM, Zulkefli NAM, Bachok N, Audu B. Effects of a health educational intervention on malaria knowledge, motivation, and behavioural skills: a randomized controlled trial. Malar J Malaria Journal. 2019 Feb;20:18:41.
Yaya S, Bishwajit G, Ekholuenetale M, Shah V, Kadio B, Udenigwe O. Knowledge of prevention, cause, symptom and practices of malaria among women in Burkina Faso. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180508.