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  1. Content type: Research

    Studies on Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development and dynamics have almost exclusively focused on patients treated with antimalarial drugs, while the majority of parasite carriers in endemic areas are asymp...

    Authors: J Teun Bousema, Louis C Gouagna, Chris J Drakeley, Annemiek M Meutstege, Bernard A Okech, Ikupa NJ Akim, John C Beier, John I Githure and Robert W Sauerwein

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:18

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  2. Content type: Methodology

    The aim of this study was to develop site-specific antibodies as a tool to capture Plasmodium falciparum-dihydrofolate reductase (Pf-DHFR) from blood samples from P. falciparum infected individuals in order to de...

    Authors: Michael Alifrangis, Inge T Christensen, Flemming S Jørgensen, Anita M Rønn, Jimmy E Weng, Ming Chen, Ib C Bygbjerg, Worachart Sirawaraporn, Yaseelan Palarasah and Claus Koch

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:16

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  3. Content type: Research

    Introducing sustainability and self-reliance is essential in chronic humanitarian emergencies before financial assistance is phased out. In Pakistan-based Afghan refugee camps, this was attempted through shift...

    Authors: Jan H Kolaczinski, Nasir Muhammad, Qaiser S Khan, Zahoor Jan, Naveeda Rehman, Toby J Leslie and Mark Rowland

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:15

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Malarone® (atovaquone-proguanil) is an effective drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. However, first cases of resistance have been reported, which are associated with ...

    Authors: Ole Wichmann, Marion Muehlen, Holger Gruss, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Norbert Suttorp and Tomas Jelinek

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:14

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  5. Content type: Research

    The erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) on Plasmodium falciparum merozoites mediates sialic acid dependent binding to glycophorin A on host erythrocytes and, therefore, plays a crucial role in cell invasion...

    Authors: Jakob P Cramer, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ingo Möhl, Sabine Dittrich, Ekkehardt Dietz, Rowland N Otchwemah, Stephan Ehrhardt, Ulrich Bienzle and Tomas Jelinek

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:11

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  6. Content type: Methodology

    Surveillance for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum should be a component of malaria control programmes. Real-time PCR methods for the detection of parasite single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene ampli...

    Authors: Anne Purfield, Amy Nelson, Anita Laoboonchai, Kanungnij Congpuong, Phillip McDaniel, R Scott Miller, Kathy Welch, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai and Steven R Meshnick

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:9

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  7. Content type: Methodology

    The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account...

    Authors: Kézia KG Scopel, Cor JF Fontes, Álvaro C Nunes, Maria de Fátima Horta and Érika M Braga

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:8

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  8. Content type: Methodology

    Isolation of a concentrated, living preparation of malarial parasite-infected red blood cells (PRBCs) that have low contamination of white blood cells (WBCs) facilitates research on the molecular, biochemical ...

    Authors: Dai Thi Xuan Trang, Nguyen Tien Huy, Tohru Kariu, Kunihiko Tajima and Kaeko Kamei

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:7

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  9. Content type: Research

    Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network...

    Authors: N Mühlberger, T Jelinek, J Gascon, M Probst, T Zoller, M Schunk, J Beran, I Gjørup, RH Behrens, J Clerinx, A Björkman, P McWhinney, A Matteelli, R Lopez-Velez, Z Bisoffi, U Hellgren…

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:5

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  10. Content type: Research

    A major concern in malaria vaccine development is the polymorphism observed among different Plasmodium isolates in different geographical areas across the globe. The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) is a leadi...

    Authors: Amanda Maestre, Sujatha Sunil, Gul Ahmad, Asif Mohmmed, Marcela Echeverri, Mauricio Corredor, Silvia Blair, Virander S Chauhan and Pawan Malhotra

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:4

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  11. Content type: Research

    In Mozambique, malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality. Efforts are being made to increase control activities within communities. These activities require management decisions based on eviden...

    Authors: Baltazar Chilundo, Johanne Sundby and Margunn Aanestad

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:3

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  12. Content type: Research

    Removal of exhaled air from total body emanations or artificially standardising carbon dioxide (CO2) outputs has previously been shown to eliminate differential attractiveness of humans to certain blackfly (Simul...

    Authors: Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, Gerry F Killeen and Bart GJ Knols

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:1

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  13. Content type: Methodology

    The development of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes induces a wide array of changes in the ultrastructure, function and antigenic properties of the host cell. Numerous proteins encoded by the paras...

    Authors: Sonja B Lauterbach, Roberto Lanzillotti and Theresa L Coetzer

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:47

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  14. Content type: Research

    The selection of point mutation at codon 164 (from isoleucine to leucine) of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with high sulfadoxine /pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. ...

    Authors: Edwin Ochong, Alexis Nzila, Serah Kimani, Gilbert Kokwaro, Theonest Mutabingwa, William Watkins and Kevin Marsh

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:46

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  15. Content type: Methodology

    Remote sensing technology provides detailed spectral and thermal images of the earth's surface from which surrogate ecological indicators of complex processes can be measured.

    Authors: Thomas P Eisele, Joseph Keating, Chris Swalm, Charles M Mbogo, Andrew K Githeko, James L Regens, John I Githure, Linda Andrews and John C Beier

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:44

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  16. Content type: Research

    In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. I...

    Authors: J Derek Charlwood, Joao Pinto, Patrica R Ferrara, Carla A Sousa, Conceicao Ferreira, Vilfrido Gil and Virgillo E do Rosário

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:45

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  17. Content type: Research

    As well as being inducible by haem, haemoxygenase -1 (HO-1) is also induced by interleukin-10 and an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin, 15d PGJ2, the carbon monoxide thus produced mediating the anti-inflammatory ef...

    Authors: Ian A Clark, Melissa M Awburn, Clive G Harper, N George Liomba and Malcolm E Molyneux

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:41

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  18. Content type: Research

    One method of collecting mosquitoes is to use human beings as bait. This is called human landing collection and is a reference method for evaluating mosquito density per person. The Mbita trap, described by Ma...

    Authors: Rémi Laganier, Fara M Randimby, Voahirana Rajaonarivelo and Vincent Robert

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:42

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  19. Content type: Research

    This study investigated causes of malaria and how cases were managed at household level, in order to improve the ability to identify malaria and ensure correct use of chloroquine. It was conducted in Nakonde D...

    Authors: Frederick AD Kaona and Mary Tuba

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:43

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  20. Content type: Research

    The intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite involves asexual and gametocyte stages. There has been a significant increase in disparate datasets derived fro...

    Authors: Raphael D Isokpehi and Winston A Hide

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:38

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  21. Content type: Methodology

    Serological tests to detect antibodies specific to Plasmodium vivax could be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies, for screening blood donors in areas where the malaria is not endemic and for diagnosis of ...

    Authors: Maria Helena C Rodrigues, Maristela G Cunha, Ricardo LD Machado, Orlando C Ferreira Jr, Mauricio M Rodrigues and Irene S Soares

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:39

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  22. Content type: Research

    In areas of high-level, year-round malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality due to malaria decrease after the first two to three years of life. This reduction may be related to the development of cellular...

    Authors: Kiprotich Chelimo, Peter O Sumba, James W Kazura, Ayub V Ofula and Chandy C John

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:37

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  23. Content type: Methodology

    Large scale in vitro production of the mosquito stages of malaria parasites remains elusive, with only limited success for complete sporogonic development and only one report of development through to infective s...

    Authors: Victoria Carter, Hazel C Cable, B Ann Underhill, Jackie Williams and Hilary Hurd

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:35

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is closely correlated with parasite burden and clinical outcome in falciparum malaria. The role of PCT in tertian malaria has not previously been investigated.

    Authors: Christoph Manegold, Stefan Schmiedel, Collins B Chiwakata and Manfred Dietrich

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:34

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  25. Content type: Research

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are amongst the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato wa...

    Authors: Jean-Michel Léong Pock Tsy, Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Laurence Marrama, Patrick Rabarison, Gilbert Le Goff, Voahirana Rajaonarivelo and Vincent Robert

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:33

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  26. Content type: Research

    Chloroquine accumulates in the acidic digestive vacuole of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, and prevents the detoxication of haematin released during haemoglobin digestion. Changes in protein PfCRT in t...

    Authors: David C Warhurst

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:31

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  27. Content type: Research

    Zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to animals, may reduce transmission of diseases such as malaria. However, as the number of animals increases, improved availability of bloo...

    Authors: Allan Saul

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:32

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  28. Content type: Research

    Current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. Although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are ...

    Authors: Ernst-Jan Scholte, Basilio N Njiru, Renate C Smallegange, Willem Takken and Bart GJ Knols

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:29

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  29. Content type: Research

    The variant surface antigen family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) is an important target for protective immunity and is implicated in the pathology of malaria through its ability to...

    Authors: Thomas Lavstsen, Ali Salanti, Anja TR Jensen, David E Arnot and Thor G Theander

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:27

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  30. Content type: Research

    Highland areas with naturally less intense malaria transmission may provide models of how lowland areas might become if transmission was permanently reduced by sustained vector control. It has been argued that...

    Authors: Caroline A Maxwell, William Chambo, Mathew Mwaimu, Frank Magogo, Ilona A Carneiro and Christopher F Curtis

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:28

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  31. Content type: Research

    The 8-amino and 9-hydroxy substituents of antimalarial cinchona alkaloids have the erythro orientation while their inactive 9-epimers are threo. From the X-ray structures a 90° difference in torsion angle between...

    Authors: David C Warhurst, John C Craig, Ipemida S Adagu, David J Meyer and Sylvia Y Lee

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:26

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  32. Content type: Research

    Malaria is known as tazo or tazomoka in local terminology in Madagascar. Within the context of traditional practice, malaria (and/or malaria symptoms) is commonly treated by decoctions or infusions from bitter...

    Authors: Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Valérie T Rasidimanana, Harison Rabarison, Peter K Cheplogoi, Michel Ratsimbason, Dulcie A Mulholland and Philippe Mauclère

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:25

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  33. Content type: Research

    Despite the extensive polymorphism at the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) locus of Plasmodium falciparum, that encodes a major repetitive malaria vaccine candidate antigen, identical and nearly identical alle...

    Authors: Erika HE Hoffmann, Paulo EM Ribolla and Marcelo U Ferreira

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:24

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  34. Content type: Research

    The erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175) is a 175 kDa antigen of Plasmodium falciparum and plays a major role in erythrocyte recognition by the parasite. The antigen is also supposed to be partly responsible...

    Authors: Sabine Dittrich, Babett Schwöbel, Sabine Jordan, Vienxay Vanisaveth, Phetsouvanh Rattanaxay, Eva M Christophel, Samlane Phompida and Tomas Jelinek

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:23

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  35. Content type: Research

    Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available.

    Authors: Olivier JT Briët, Dissanayake M Gunawardena, Wim van der Hoek and Felix P Amerasinghe

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:22

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  36. Content type: Research

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria, responsible for 70–80 million clinical cases each year and large socio-economical burdens for countries such as Brazil where it is the most prevalent...

    Authors: Emilio F Merino, Carmen Fernandez-Becerra, Alda MBN Madeira, Ariane L Machado, Alan Durham, Arthur Gruber, Neil Hall and Hernando A del Portillo

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:21

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  37. Content type: Research

    Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear.

    Authors: Constantianus JM Koenraadt, Krijn P Paaijmans, Andrew K Githeko, Bart GJ Knols and Willem Takken

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:20

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  38. Content type: Methodology

    The development of an electroporation based transfection method for Plasmodium falciparum has been very successful for the study of some genes but its efficiency remains very low. While alternative approaches hav...

    Authors: Tina S Skinner-Adams, Paula M Lawrie, Paula L Hawthorne, Donald L Gardiner and Katharine R Trenholme

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:19

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  39. Content type: Research

    Malaria parasites that carry the DHFR-mutation I164L are not only highly resistant to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine but also to the new antimalarial drug chlorproguanil-dapsone. The spread of this mutation in Afri...

    Authors: Ole Wichmann, Tomas Jelinek, Gabriele Peyerl-Hoffmann, Nikolai Mühlberger, Martin P Grobusch, Joaquim Gascon, Alberto Matteelli, Christoph Hatz, Hermann Laferl, Marco Schulze, Gerd Burchard, Saraiva da Cunha, Jiøi Beran, Paul McWhinney, Herwig Kollaritsch, Peter Kern…

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:17

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  40. Content type: Research

    In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our s...

    Authors: Marielle K Bouyou-Akotet, Denisa E Ionete-Collard, Modeste Mabika-Manfoumbi, Eric Kendjo, Pierre-Blaise Matsiegui, Elie Mavoungou and Maryvonne Kombila

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:18

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  41. Content type: Research

    Malaria can be eradicated from islands. To assess the prospects for eradication of malaria from the island of Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea, we fitted a mathematical model to age-prevalence curves and thus ob...

    Authors: Reto Hagmann, J Derek Charlwood, Vilfrido Gil, Conceição Ferreira, Virgíllo do Rosário and Tom A Smith

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:15

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