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  1. The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account...

    Authors: Kézia KG Scopel, Cor JF Fontes, Álvaro C Nunes, Maria de Fátima Horta and Érika M Braga
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:8
  2. Isolation of a concentrated, living preparation of malarial parasite-infected red blood cells (PRBCs) that have low contamination of white blood cells (WBCs) facilitates research on the molecular, biochemical ...

    Authors: Dai Thi Xuan Trang, Nguyen Tien Huy, Tohru Kariu, Kunihiko Tajima and Kaeko Kamei
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:7
  3. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network...

    Authors: N Mühlberger, T Jelinek, J Gascon, M Probst, T Zoller, M Schunk, J Beran, I Gjørup, RH Behrens, J Clerinx, A Björkman, P McWhinney, A Matteelli, R Lopez-Velez, Z Bisoffi, U Hellgren…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:5
  4. A major concern in malaria vaccine development is the polymorphism observed among different Plasmodium isolates in different geographical areas across the globe. The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) is a leadi...

    Authors: Amanda Maestre, Sujatha Sunil, Gul Ahmad, Asif Mohmmed, Marcela Echeverri, Mauricio Corredor, Silvia Blair, Virander S Chauhan and Pawan Malhotra
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:4
  5. In Mozambique, malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality. Efforts are being made to increase control activities within communities. These activities require management decisions based on eviden...

    Authors: Baltazar Chilundo, Johanne Sundby and Margunn Aanestad
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:3
  6. Removal of exhaled air from total body emanations or artificially standardising carbon dioxide (CO2) outputs has previously been shown to eliminate differential attractiveness of humans to certain blackfly (Simul...

    Authors: Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, Gerry F Killeen and Bart GJ Knols
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:1
  7. The development of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes induces a wide array of changes in the ultrastructure, function and antigenic properties of the host cell. Numerous proteins encoded by the paras...

    Authors: Sonja B Lauterbach, Roberto Lanzillotti and Theresa L Coetzer
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:47
  8. The selection of point mutation at codon 164 (from isoleucine to leucine) of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with high sulfadoxine /pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. ...

    Authors: Edwin Ochong, Alexis Nzila, Serah Kimani, Gilbert Kokwaro, Theonest Mutabingwa, William Watkins and Kevin Marsh
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:46
  9. In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. I...

    Authors: J Derek Charlwood, Joao Pinto, Patrica R Ferrara, Carla A Sousa, Conceicao Ferreira, Vilfrido Gil and Virgillo E do Rosário
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:45
  10. Remote sensing technology provides detailed spectral and thermal images of the earth's surface from which surrogate ecological indicators of complex processes can be measured.

    Authors: Thomas P Eisele, Joseph Keating, Chris Swalm, Charles M Mbogo, Andrew K Githeko, James L Regens, John I Githure, Linda Andrews and John C Beier
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:44
  11. This study investigated causes of malaria and how cases were managed at household level, in order to improve the ability to identify malaria and ensure correct use of chloroquine. It was conducted in Nakonde D...

    Authors: Frederick AD Kaona and Mary Tuba
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:43
  12. One method of collecting mosquitoes is to use human beings as bait. This is called human landing collection and is a reference method for evaluating mosquito density per person. The Mbita trap, described by Ma...

    Authors: Rémi Laganier, Fara M Randimby, Voahirana Rajaonarivelo and Vincent Robert
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:42
  13. As well as being inducible by haem, haemoxygenase -1 (HO-1) is also induced by interleukin-10 and an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin, 15d PGJ2, the carbon monoxide thus produced mediating the anti-inflammatory ef...

    Authors: Ian A Clark, Melissa M Awburn, Clive G Harper, N George Liomba and Malcolm E Molyneux
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:41
  14. Serological tests to detect antibodies specific to Plasmodium vivax could be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies, for screening blood donors in areas where the malaria is not endemic and for diagnosis of ...

    Authors: Maria Helena C Rodrigues, Maristela G Cunha, Ricardo LD Machado, Orlando C Ferreira Jr, Mauricio M Rodrigues and Irene S Soares
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:39
  15. The intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite involves asexual and gametocyte stages. There has been a significant increase in disparate datasets derived fro...

    Authors: Raphael D Isokpehi and Winston A Hide
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:38
  16. In areas of high-level, year-round malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality due to malaria decrease after the first two to three years of life. This reduction may be related to the development of cellular...

    Authors: Kiprotich Chelimo, Peter O Sumba, James W Kazura, Ayub V Ofula and Chandy C John
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:37
  17. Large scale in vitro production of the mosquito stages of malaria parasites remains elusive, with only limited success for complete sporogonic development and only one report of development through to infective s...

    Authors: Victoria Carter, Hazel C Cable, B Ann Underhill, Jackie Williams and Hilary Hurd
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:35
  18. Procalcitonin (PCT) is closely correlated with parasite burden and clinical outcome in falciparum malaria. The role of PCT in tertian malaria has not previously been investigated.

    Authors: Christoph Manegold, Stefan Schmiedel, Collins B Chiwakata and Manfred Dietrich
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:34
  19. Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are amongst the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato wa...

    Authors: Jean-Michel Léong Pock Tsy, Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Laurence Marrama, Patrick Rabarison, Gilbert Le Goff, Voahirana Rajaonarivelo and Vincent Robert
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:33
  20. Zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to animals, may reduce transmission of diseases such as malaria. However, as the number of animals increases, improved availability of bloo...

    Authors: Allan Saul
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:32
  21. Chloroquine accumulates in the acidic digestive vacuole of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, and prevents the detoxication of haematin released during haemoglobin digestion. Changes in protein PfCRT in t...

    Authors: David C Warhurst
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:31
  22. Current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. Although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are ...

    Authors: Ernst-Jan Scholte, Basilio N Njiru, Renate C Smallegange, Willem Takken and Bart GJ Knols
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:29
  23. Highland areas with naturally less intense malaria transmission may provide models of how lowland areas might become if transmission was permanently reduced by sustained vector control. It has been argued that...

    Authors: Caroline A Maxwell, William Chambo, Mathew Mwaimu, Frank Magogo, Ilona A Carneiro and Christopher F Curtis
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:28
  24. The variant surface antigen family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) is an important target for protective immunity and is implicated in the pathology of malaria through its ability to...

    Authors: Thomas Lavstsen, Ali Salanti, Anja TR Jensen, David E Arnot and Thor G Theander
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:27
  25. The 8-amino and 9-hydroxy substituents of antimalarial cinchona alkaloids have the erythro orientation while their inactive 9-epimers are threo. From the X-ray structures a 90° difference in torsion angle between...

    Authors: David C Warhurst, John C Craig, Ipemida S Adagu, David J Meyer and Sylvia Y Lee
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:26
  26. Malaria is known as tazo or tazomoka in local terminology in Madagascar. Within the context of traditional practice, malaria (and/or malaria symptoms) is commonly treated by decoctions or infusions from bitter...

    Authors: Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Valérie T Rasidimanana, Harison Rabarison, Peter K Cheplogoi, Michel Ratsimbason, Dulcie A Mulholland and Philippe Mauclère
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:25
  27. Despite the extensive polymorphism at the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) locus of Plasmodium falciparum, that encodes a major repetitive malaria vaccine candidate antigen, identical and nearly identical alle...

    Authors: Erika HE Hoffmann, Paulo EM Ribolla and Marcelo U Ferreira
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:24
  28. The erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175) is a 175 kDa antigen of Plasmodium falciparum and plays a major role in erythrocyte recognition by the parasite. The antigen is also supposed to be partly responsible...

    Authors: Sabine Dittrich, Babett Schwöbel, Sabine Jordan, Vienxay Vanisaveth, Phetsouvanh Rattanaxay, Eva M Christophel, Samlane Phompida and Tomas Jelinek
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:23
  29. Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available.

    Authors: Olivier JT Briët, Dissanayake M Gunawardena, Wim van der Hoek and Felix P Amerasinghe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:22
  30. Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria, responsible for 70–80 million clinical cases each year and large socio-economical burdens for countries such as Brazil where it is the most prevalent...

    Authors: Emilio F Merino, Carmen Fernandez-Becerra, Alda MBN Madeira, Ariane L Machado, Alan Durham, Arthur Gruber, Neil Hall and Hernando A del Portillo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:21
  31. Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear.

    Authors: Constantianus JM Koenraadt, Krijn P Paaijmans, Andrew K Githeko, Bart GJ Knols and Willem Takken
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:20
  32. The development of an electroporation based transfection method for Plasmodium falciparum has been very successful for the study of some genes but its efficiency remains very low. While alternative approaches hav...

    Authors: Tina S Skinner-Adams, Paula M Lawrie, Paula L Hawthorne, Donald L Gardiner and Katharine R Trenholme
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:19
  33. In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our s...

    Authors: Marielle K Bouyou-Akotet, Denisa E Ionete-Collard, Modeste Mabika-Manfoumbi, Eric Kendjo, Pierre-Blaise Matsiegui, Elie Mavoungou and Maryvonne Kombila
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:18
  34. Malaria parasites that carry the DHFR-mutation I164L are not only highly resistant to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine but also to the new antimalarial drug chlorproguanil-dapsone. The spread of this mutation in Afri...

    Authors: Ole Wichmann, Tomas Jelinek, Gabriele Peyerl-Hoffmann, Nikolai Mühlberger, Martin P Grobusch, Joaquim Gascon, Alberto Matteelli, Christoph Hatz, Hermann Laferl, Marco Schulze, Gerd Burchard, Saraiva da Cunha, Jiøi Beran, Paul McWhinney, Herwig Kollaritsch, Peter Kern…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:17
  35. Malaria can be eradicated from islands. To assess the prospects for eradication of malaria from the island of Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea, we fitted a mathematical model to age-prevalence curves and thus ob...

    Authors: Reto Hagmann, J Derek Charlwood, Vilfrido Gil, Conceição Ferreira, Virgíllo do Rosário and Tom A Smith
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:15
  36. There is no established biochemical basis for the neurotoxicity of mefloquine. We investigated the possibility that the acute in vitro neurotoxicity of mefloquine might be mediated through a disruptive effect of ...

    Authors: Geoffrey S Dow, Thomas H Hudson, Maryanne Vahey and Michael L Koenig
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:14
  37. Malaria control programmes utilising indoor residual spraying are only effective if a high coverage of targeted structures is achieved and an insecticide that is effective against the specific mosquito vector ...

    Authors: Marlize Booman, Brian L Sharp, Carrin L Martin, Bonifacio Manjate, Jacobus J la Grange and David N Durrheim
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:13
  38. Malaria prevalence differs between the two islands that comprise the archipelago of São Tomé and Príncipe. This may be due to differences in the biology of local Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the islands....

    Authors: J Derek Charlwood, Joao Pinto, Carla A Sousa, Conceicao Ferreira, Vincenso Petrarca and Virgilio do E Rosario
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:9
  39. The inflammatory nature of falciparum malaria has been acknowledged since increased circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were first measured, but precisely where the mediators downstream from thi...

    Authors: Ian A Clark, Melissa M Awburn, Richard O Whitten, Clive G Harper, N George Liomba, Malcolm E Molyneux and Terrie E Taylor
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:6

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