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  1. The use of genotyping to distinguish recrudescent from new infections is currently recommended for all clinical antimalarial efficacy trials by the World Health Organization. However, genotyping-adjusted drug ...

    Authors: William J Collins, Bryan Greenhouse, Philip J Rosenthal and Grant Dorsey
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:122
  2. Recent studies have highlighted the over-diagnosis of malaria in clinical settings in Africa. This study assessed the impact of a training programme implemented as part of an intervention trial on diagnostic b...

    Authors: Paul M Masika, Waziri J Semarundu, Raymond Urassa, Jackline Mosha, Daniel Chandramohan and Roly D Gosling
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:120
  3. Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well est...

    Authors: Frank P Mockenhaupt, George Bedu-Addo, Christiane von Gaertner, Renate Boyé, Katrin Fricke, Iris Hannibal, Filiz Karakaya, Marieke Schaller, Ulrike Ulmen, Patrick A Acquah, Ekkehart Dietz, Teunis A Eggelte and Ulrich Bienzle
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:119
  4. Accurate identification and quantification of malaria parasites are critical for measuring clinical trial outcomes. Positive and negative diagnosis is usually sufficient for the assessment of therapeutic outco...

    Authors: Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Mazie Barcus, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai, Sinuon Muth, Jason D Maguire, Robert G Jordan, William R Prescott and F Ellis McKenzie
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:118
  5. The African Heads of State meeting in Abuja, Nigeria on Roll Back Malaria adopted effective treatment of malaria nearer the home as one of the strategies for malaria control in Africa. A potentially effective ...

    Authors: Obinna Onwujekwe, Nkem Dike, Juliana Ojukwu, Benjamin Uzochukwu, Nkoli Ezumah, Elvis Shu and Paul Okonkwo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:117
  6. The mechanisms leading to death and functional impairments due to cerebral malaria (CM) are yet not fully understood. Most of the knowledge about the pathomechanisms of CM originates from studies in animal mod...

    Authors: Peter Lackner, Ronny Beer, Raimund Helbok, Gregor Broessner, Klaus Engelhardt, Christian Brenneis, Erich Schmutzhard and Kristian Pfaller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:116
  7. As Anopheles funestus is one of the principal Afro-tropical malaria vectors, a more complete understanding of its population structure is desirable. In West and Central Africa, An. funestus population structure i...

    Authors: Andrew P Michel, Olga Grushko, Wamdaogo M Guelbeogo, N'Fale Sagnon, Carlo Costantini and Nora J Besansky
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:115
  8. The survivorship and distribution of Anopheles arabiensis larvae and pupae was examined in a rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, central Kenya, from August 2005 to April 2006, prior to implementation o...

    Authors: Joseph M Mwangangi, Ephantus J Muturi, Josephat Shililu, Simon M Muriu, Benjamin Jacob, Ephantus W Kabiru, Charles M Mbogo, John Githure and Robert Novak
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:114
  9. Presented here are the results of a comparative trial on the efficacy of three artemisinin-based combinations conducted from May to October 2004, in Pool Province, Republic of Congo.

    Authors: Ingrid van den Broek, Christa Kitz, Sarwatt Al Attas, François Libama, Manica Balasegaram and Jean-Paul Guthmann
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:113
  10. Atovaquone is part of the antimalarial drug combination atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®) and inhibits the cytochrome bc1 complex of the electron transport chain in Plasmodium spp. Molecular modelling showed that ...

    Authors: Tamirat Gebru, Asrat Hailu, Peter G Kremsner, Jürgen FJ Kun and Martin P Grobusch
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:112
  11. Ethnographic studies from East Africa suggest that cerebral malaria and anaemia are not classified in local knowledge as malaria complications, but as illnesses in their own right. Cerebral malaria 'degedege' has...

    Authors: Frank M Ringsted, Ib C Bygbjerg and Helle Samuelsen
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:111
  12. The organization and mining of malaria genomic and post-genomic data is important to significantly increase the knowledge of the biology of its causative agents, and is motivated, on a longer term, by the nece...

    Authors: Lyn-Marie Birkholtz, Olivier Bastien, Gordon Wells, Delphine Grando, Fourie Joubert, Vinod Kasam, Marc Zimmermann, Philippe Ortet, Nicolas Jacq, Nadia Saïdani, Sylvaine Roy, Martin Hofmann-Apitius, Vincent Breton, Abraham I Louw and Eric Maréchal
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:110
  13. Malaria control strategies emphasize the need for prompt and effective treatment of malaria episodes. To increase treatment efficacy, Tanzania changed its first-line treatment from chloroquine to sulphadoxine-...

    Authors: Manuel W Hetzel, June J Msechu, Catherine Goodman, Christian Lengeler, Brigit Obrist, S Patrick Kachur, Ahmed Makemba, Rose Nathan, Alexander Schulze and Hassan Mshinda
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:109
  14. Chloroquine (CQ) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) monotherapy for Plasmodium falciparum often leads to therapeutic failure in Indonesia. Combining CQ with other drugs, like SP, may provide an affordable, availab...

    Authors: Edith R Lederman, Jason D Maguire, Iwa W Sumawinata, Krisin Chand, Iqbal Elyazar, Lusi Estiana, Priyanto Sismadi, Michael J Bangs and J Kevin Baird
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:108
  15. Recent resurgence of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya has called for a more comprehensive understanding of the previously neglected complex highland vector ecology. Besides other drivers of malaria ep...

    Authors: Andrew K Githeko, John M Ayisi, Peter K Odada, Francis K Atieli, Bryson A Ndenga, John I Githure and Guiyun Yan
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:107
  16. Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar, is located at an altitude of over 1,200 m. The environment at this altitude is not particularly favourable to malaria transmission, but malaria nonetheless remains a ma...

    Authors: Olivier Domarle, Romy Razakandrainibe, Emma Rakotomalala, Laurence Jolivet, Rindra Vatosoa Randremanana, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Charles Emile Ramarokoto, Jean-Louis Soares and Frédéric Ariey
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:106
  17. A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia). The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine...

    Authors: Lisa A Ronald, Sarah L Kenny, Eveline Klinkenberg, Alex O Akoto, Isaac Boakye, Guy Barnish and Martin J Donnelly
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:105
  18. Thick blood films are routinely used to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, they were used to diagnose volunteers exposed to experimental malaria challenge.

    Authors: Philip Bejon, Laura Andrews, Angela Hunt-Cooke, Frances Sanderson, Sarah C Gilbert and Adrian VS Hill
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:104
  19. Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Pla...

    Authors: Sungano Mharakurwa, Christopher Simoloka, Philip E Thuma, Clive J Shiff and David J Sullivan
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:103
  20. Hyperlactataemia is often associated with a poor outcome in severe malaria in African children. To unravel the complex pathophysiology of this condition the relationship between plasma lactate levels, parasite...

    Authors: Climent Casals-Pascual, Oscar Kai, Brett Lowe, Mike English, Thomas N Williams, Kathryn Maitland, Charles RCJ Newton, Norbert Peshu and David J Roberts
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:101
  21. Surprisingly little is known about the geographical overlap between malaria and other tropical diseases, including helminth infections. This is despite the potential public health importance of co-infection an...

    Authors: Simon Brooker, Archie CA Clements, Peter J Hotez, Simon I Hay, Andrew J Tatem, Donald AP Bundy and Robert W Snow
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:99
  22. Spatial and longitudinal monitoring of transmission intensity will allow better targeting of malaria interventions. In this study, data on meteorological, demographic, entomological and parasitological data ov...

    Authors: MJAM Oesterholt, JT Bousema, OK Mwerinde, C Harris, P Lushino, A Masokoto, H Mwerinde, FW Mosha and CJ Drakeley
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:98
  23. Malaria is one of the most serious health problems in Kenya. In 2004, the Kenya Medical Research Institute and the US Army Medical Research Unit – Kenya surveyed adults in Samburu, Malindi, and Busia districts...

    Authors: Rodney L Coldren, Trish Prosser, Fredrick Ogolla, Victor O Ofula and Nicholas Adungo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:96
  24. The standard in vitro protocol currently in use for drug testing against Plasmodium falciparum, based on the incorporation of the purine [3H]-hypoxanthine, has two serious drawbacks. Firstly it is unsuitable for ...

    Authors: Neils B Quashie, Harry P de Koning and Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:95
  25. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been and is currently used for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Nevertheless, the response of parasites to SP treatment has s...

    Authors: Erasto V Mbugi, Benezeth M Mutayoba, Allen L Malisa, Sakurani T Balthazary, Thomas B Nyambo and Hassan Mshinda
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:94
  26. Malaria is a leading cause of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality among children in Africa, yet, few studies have described the spatial distribution of the two outcomes. Here spatial regression models we...

    Authors: Lawrence N Kazembe, Immo Kleinschmidt and Brian L Sharp
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:93
  27. Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic d...

    Authors: Jason D Maguire, Edith R Lederman, Mazie J Barcus, Wendy A Prudhomme O'Meara, Robert G Jordon, Socheat Duong, Sinuon Muth, Priyanto Sismadi, Michael J Bangs, W Roy Prescott, J Kevin Baird and Chansuda Wongsrichanalai
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:92
  28. For remote identification of mosquito habitats the first step is often to construct a discrete tessellation of the region. In applications where complex geometries do not need to be represented such as urban h...

    Authors: Benjamin G Jacob, Ephantus J Muturi, Jose E Funes, Josephat I Shililu, John I Githure, Ibulaimu I Kakoma and Robert J Novak
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:91
  29. Genetic polymorphism is an inevitable component of a complex organism especially in multistage infectious organisms such as malaria parasites. Understanding the population genetic structure of the parasites wo...

    Authors: Surendra K Prajapati, Anju Verma, Tridibes Adak, Rajpal S Yadav, Ashwini Kumar, Alex Eapen, Manoj K Das, Neeru Singh, Surya K Sharma, Moshahid A Rizvi, Aditya P Dash and Hema Joshi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:90
  30. The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different...

    Authors: Ulrika Uddenfeldt Wort, Ian Hastings, TK Mutabingwa and Bernard J Brabin
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:89
  31. Physical objects like vegetation can influence oviposition by mosquitoes on soil or water substrates. Anopheles gambiae s. l. is generally thought to utilize puddles over bare soil as its prime larval habitat and...

    Authors: Juan Huang, Edward D Walker, Philip E Otienoburu, Fred Amimo, John Vulule and James R Miller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:88
  32. Anopheles gambiae eggs are more frequently found on soil around puddle habitats of the larvae, than on the water surface itself in Western Kenya. Thus, eggs can experience temperatures more wide-ranging and letha...

    Authors: Juan Huang, Edward D Walker, John Vulule and James R Miller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:87
  33. The development of safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against malaria in Africa is a public health priority. Methylene blue (MB) has a similar mode of action as chloroquine (CQ) and has moreover ...

    Authors: Peter E Meissner, Germain Mandi, Boubacar Coulibaly, Steffen Witte, Théophile Tapsoba, Ulrich Mansmann, Jens Rengelshausen, Wolfgang Schiek, Albrecht Jahn, Ingeborg Walter-Sack, Gerd Mikus, Jürgen Burhenne, Klaus-Dieter Riedel, R Heiner Schirmer, Bocar Kouyaté and Olaf Müller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:84
  34. The naturally-acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax variant antigens (VIR) was evaluated in individuals exposed to malaria and living in different endemic areas for malaria in the north of Brazil.

    Authors: Tatiane R Oliveira, Carmen Fernandez-Becerra, Maria Carolina S Jimenez, Hernando A Del Portillo and Irene S Soares
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:83
  35. In vitro and in vivo resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to atovaquone or atovaquone-proguanil hydrochloride combination has been associated to two point mutations in the parasite cytochrome b (cytb) gene (Tyr268...

    Authors: Christian T Happi, Grace O Gbotosho, Onikepe A Folarin, Danny Milner, Ousmane Sarr, Akintunde Sowunmi, Dennis E Kyle, Wilbur K Milhous, Dyann F Wirth and Ayoade MJ Oduola
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:82
  36. Artemisinin-containing therapies are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Insufficient numbers of tablets and inadequate package inserts result in sub-optimal dosing and possible treatment fail...

    Authors: Yves Jackson, François Chappuis, Louis Loutan and Walter Taylor
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:81
  37. Decisions concerning malaria treatment depend on species identification causing disease. Microscopy is most frequently used, but at low parasitaemia (<20 parasites/μl) the technique becomes less sensitive and ...

    Authors: Petra F Mens, Gerard J Schoone, Piet A Kager and Henk DFH Schallig
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:80
  38. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of home malaria management with pre-packaged chloroquine in two areas in the Moramanga district of Madagascar. The knowledge, attitude and practices o...

    Authors: Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Pascal Millet, Jean Louis Soarès, Leon Rabarijaona, Benjamin Rakotoson, Denis Malvy and Didier Ménard
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:79
  39. Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preve...

    Authors: Kacey C Ernst, Samson O Adoka, Dickens O Kowuor, Mark L Wilson and Chandy C John
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:78
  40. Recent field studies indicated that insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) maintain their efficacy despite a high frequency of the knock-down resistance (kdr) gene in Anopheles gambiae populations. It was essential t...

    Authors: Mouhamadou Chouaibou, Frédéric Simard, Fabrice Chandre, Josiane Etang, Frédéric Darriet and Jean-Marc Hougard
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:77
  41. Malaria imposes significant costs on households and the poor are disproportionately affected. However, cost data are often from quantitative surveys with a fixed recall period. They do not capture costs that u...

    Authors: Jane M Chuma, Michael Thiede and Catherine S Molyneux
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:76
  42. Sentinel site surveillance of antimalarials by in-vivo therapeutic efficacy studies in Zambia is one of the key activities ear-marked for monitoring and evaluation. The studies are conducted annually in order ...

    Authors: Pascalina Chanda, Moonga Hawela, Mabvuto Kango and Naawa Sipilanyambe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:75
  43. In Zambia, unacceptably high resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs prompted the choice of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as first line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although th...

    Authors: Modest Mulenga, Jean-Pierre Van geertruyden, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Victor Chalwe, Filip Moerman, Roma Chilengi, Chantal Van Overmeir, Jean-Claude Dujardin and Umberto D'Alessandro
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:73
  44. Host susceptibility to P.falciparum is critical for understanding malaria in pregnancy, its consequences for the mother and baby, and for improving malaria control in pregnant women. Yet host genetic factors whic...

    Authors: María-Paz Loscertales and Bernard J Brabin
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:72

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