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  1. Content type: Research

    New national malaria strategic plans (NMSPs) should build upon the achievements and challenges identified during the implementation of previous plans, but there is limited research on the transition process be...

    Authors: Andrew Andrada, Samantha Herrera and Yazoumé Yé

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:253

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  2. Content type: Research

    Large-scale surveillance of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance is an attractive method of resistance monitoring, to complement therapeutic efficacy studies in settings where the latter are logi...

    Authors: Sidsel Nag, Johan Ursing, Amabelia Rodrigues, Marina Crespo, Camilla Krogsgaard, Ole Lund, Frank M. Aarestrup, Michael Alifrangis and PouL-Erik Kofoed

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:252

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  3. Content type: Research

    Ecuador plans to eliminate malaria by 2020, and the country has already seen a decrease in the number of cases from more than 100,000 in 2000 to only 618 in 2015. Around 30% of malaria infections in Ecuador ar...

    Authors: Claudia A. Vera-Arias, L. Enrique Castro, Javier Gómez-Obando and Fabián E. Sáenz

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:251

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  4. Content type: Research

    The Uganda National Malaria Control Programme recognizes the importance of minimizing the effect of malaria among pregnant women. Accordingly, strategies including intermittent preventive treatment of malaria ...

    Authors: Denis Okethwangu, Jimmy Opigo, Stella Atugonza, Catherine T. Kizza, Monica Nabatanzi, Claire Biribawa, Daniel Kyabayinze and Alex R. Ario

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:250

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  5. Content type: Research

    Insecticide resistance of Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in eastern Afghanistan, has been reported previously. This study describes the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of resistance to facilita...

    Authors: Noor Halim Zahid Safi, Abdul Ali Ahmadi, Sami Nahzat, Supriya Warusavithana, Naimullah Safi, Reza Valadan, Atie Shemshadian, Marzieh Sharifi, Ahmadali Enayati and Janet Hemingway

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:249

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  6. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors advised of two errors present in the article: one concerning two author names and the other missing funding details.

    Authors: Hannah M. Edwards, Patchara Sriwichai, Kirakorn Kirabittir, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Irwin F. Chavez and Jeffrey Hii

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:248

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    The original article was published in Malaria Journal 2019 18:221

  7. Content type: Research

    Parasite prevalence has been used widely as a measure of malaria transmission, especially in malaria endemic areas. However, its contribution and relationship to malaria mortality across different age groups h...

    Authors: Sammy Khagayi, Meghna Desai, Nyaguara Amek, Vincent Were, Eric Donald Onyango, Christopher Odero, Kephas Otieno, Godfrey Bigogo, Stephen Munga, Frank Odhiambo, Mary J. Hamel, Simon Kariuki, Aaron M. Samuels, Laurence Slutsker, John Gimnig and Penelope Vounatsou

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:247

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  8. Content type: Research

    Measures of malaria burden using microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in cross-sectional household surveys may incompletely describe the burden of malaria in low-transmission settings. This study descr...

    Authors: Ashenafi Assefa, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Wakgari Deressa, Heven Sime, Hussein Mohammed, Amha Kebede, Hiwot Solomon, Hiwot Teka, Kevin Gurrala, Brian Matei, Brian Wakeman, G. Glenn Wilson, Ipsita Sinha, Richard J. Maude, Ruth Ashton, Jackie Cook…

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:246

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  9. Content type: Research

    In light of increasing complexity of identifying and treating malaria cases in low transmission settings, operational solutions are needed to increase effective delivery of interventions. Community engagement ...

    Authors: Kimberly Baltzell, Kelly Harvard, Marguerite Hanley, Roly Gosling and Ingrid Chen

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:245

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  10. Content type: Research

    In recent years, the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has greatly reduced malaria transmission. However, malaria remains a global public health concern with...

    Authors: Caleb Stica, Claire L. Jeffries, Seth R. Irish, Yaya Barry, Denka Camara, Ismael Yansane, Mojca Kristan, Thomas Walker and Louisa A. Messenger

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:244

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  11. Content type: Research

    Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malar...

    Authors: Silas Agumba, John E. Gimnig, Lilian Ogonda, Maurice Ombok, Jackline Kosgei, Stephen Munga, Benard Guyah, Seline Omondi and Eric Ochomo

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:243

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  12. Content type: Research

    The importance of submicroscopic malaria infections in high-transmission areas could contribute to maintain the parasite cycle. Regarding non-endemic areas, its importance remains barely understood because par...

    Authors: Isabel Fradejas, José Miguel Rubio, Ariadna Martín-Díaz, Juan María Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel Ruiz-Giardin, Gerardo Rojo-Marcos, María Velasco, María Calderón-Moreno, José Manuel Azcona-Gutierrez, Francisco Jesús Merino, Belén Andrés Olmo, María Espinosa, María Cuadrado, Esther González-Monte, Jerónimo Jaqueti, Juan Cuadros…

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:242

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  13. Content type: Research

    Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (PfMSP-1) and -2 (PfMSP-2) are major blood-stage vaccine candidate antigens. Understanding the genetic diversity of the genes, pfmsp-1 and pfmsp-2, is important f...

    Authors: Hương Giang Lê, Jung-Mi Kang, Hojong Jun, Jinyoung Lee, Thị Lam Thái, Moe Kyaw Myint, Khin Saw Aye, Woon-Mok Sohn, Ho-Joon Shin, Tong-Soo Kim and Byoung-Kuk Na

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:241

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  14. Content type: Research

    Tak Province, at the Thai–Myanmar border, is one of three high malaria incidence areas in Thailand. This study aimed to describe and identify possible factors driving the spatiotemporal trends of disease incid...

    Authors: Chris Erwin G. Mercado, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Prayuth Sudathip, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Amnat Khamsiriwatchara, Wirichada Pan-ngum, Surapon Yimsamran, Siam Lawawirojwong, Kevin Ho, Nattwut Ekapirat, Rapeephan R. Maude, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Verena I. Carrara, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen M. Dondorp and Richard J. Maude

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:240

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  15. Content type: Research

    The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homolog 2b (PfRh2b) is an important P. falciparum merozoite ligand that mediates invasion of erythrocytes by interacting with a chymotrypsin-sensitive “recep...

    Authors: Cyrille K. Diédhiou, Rahama A. Moussa, Amy K. Bei, Rachel Daniels, Nasserdine Papa Mze, Daouda Ndiaye, Ngor Faye, Dyann Wirth, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Souleymane Mboup and Ambroise D. Ahouidi

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:239

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  16. Content type: Research

    Reactive focal mass drug administration (rfMDA), or presumptive treatment without malaria testing of household members and neighbours of a passively identified malaria case, is currently being explored as a po...

    Authors: Kimberly A. Baltzell, Alysse Maglior, Khaya Bangu, Nontokozo Mngadi, Lisa M. Prach, Brooke Whittemore, Nyasatu Ntshalintshali, Manik Saini, Nomcebo Dlamini, Simon Kunene and Michelle S. Hsiang

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:238

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  17. Content type: Research

    Basic blue 3 is a promising anti-malarial lead compound based on the π-delocalized lipophilic cation hypothesis. Its derivatives with nitrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms at the 3- and 7-positions on the phen...

    Authors: Takahiro Tougan, Kazunori Takahashi, Mayumi Ikegami-Kawai, Masako Horiuchi, Shiho Mori, Maiko Hosoi, Toshihiro Horii, Masataka Ihara and Masayoshi Tsubuki

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:237

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  18. Content type: Research

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum is among the major public health problems in most endemic areas of the world. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a fir...

    Authors: Sileshi Belew, Sultan Suleman, Tesfaye Mohammed, Yimer Mekonnen, Markos Duguma, Henok Teshome, Bikila Bayisa, Evelien Wynendaele, Matthias D’Hondt, Luc Duchateau and Bart De Spiegeleer

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:236

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  19. Content type: Research

    China’s 1-3-7 approach was extensively implemented to monitor the timeframe of case reporting, case investigation and foci response in the malaria elimination. However, activities before diagnosis and reportin...

    Authors: Ting Wang, Shui-Sen Zhou, Jun Feng, Myo Minn Oo, Jing Chen, Chang-Fu Yan, Yi Zhang and Ping Tie

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:235

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  20. Content type: Research

    Given the central importance of anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria, there is a need to understand the effect of Plasmodium infection on the broad spectrum of drug metabolizing enzymes. Previous studi...

    Authors: Sylvie M. Mimche, Choon-myung Lee, Ken H. Liu, Patrice N. Mimche, R. Donald Harvey, Thomas J. Murphy, Beatrice A. Nyagode, Dean P. Jones, Tracey J. Lamb and Edward T. Morgan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:234

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  21. Content type: Research

    With an overall decline of malaria incidence, elimination of malaria is gradually becoming the next target for many of countries affected by the disease. In Kenya the national malaria control strategy is aimin...

    Authors: Ismail Mahat Bashir, Nancy Nyakoe and Marianne van der Sande

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:233

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  22. Content type: Research

    In a background of renewed calls for malaria eradication, several endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are contemplating malaria elimination nationally or sub-nationally. In Mozambique, a strategy to elimin...

    Authors: Harvie P. Portugaliza, Beatriz Galatas, Hoticha Nhantumbo, Helder Djive, Ilda Murato, Francisco Saúte, Pedro Aide, Christopher Pell and Khátia Munguambe

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:232

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  23. Content type: Research

    Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) are the recommended first- and second-line treatments, respectively, for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Somalia. The studies repor...

    Authors: Marian Warsame, Abdillahi Mohamed Hassan, Abdikarim Hussein Hassan, Ali Mohamed Jibril, Nimol Khim, Abdulkadir Mohamed Arale, Ahamed Hassan Gomey, Zainab Said Nur, Said Mohamed Osman, Marian Said Mohamed, Ali Abdulrahman, Fahmi Essa Yusuf, Jamal Ghilan Hefzullah Amran, Benoit Witkowski and Pascal Ringwald

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:231

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  24. Content type: Research

    Malaria was eliminated in Spain in 1964. Since then, more than 10,000 cases of malaria have been reported, mostly in travellers and migrants, making it the most frequently imported disease into this country. I...

    Authors: Zaida Herrador, Beatriz Fernández-Martinez, Víctor Quesada-Cubo, Oliva Diaz-Garcia, Rosa Cano, Agustín Benito and Diana Gómez-Barroso

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:230

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  25. Content type: Research

    Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) is a highly-recommended intervention to prevent maternal and neonatal complications associated with malaria infection. Despite fairly high antenatal ca...

    Authors: Shraddha Bajaria, Charles Festo, Sigilbert Mrema, Josephine Shabani, Ellen Hertzmark and Ramadhani Abdul

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:229

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  26. Content type: Research

    Agro-ecological systems have been associated with increased malaria intensity. This study determined association between different agro-ecological systems, prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in Mvo...

    Authors: Susan F. Rumisha, Elizabeth H. Shayo and Leonard E. G. Mboera

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:228

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  27. Content type: Research

    Analysis of anti-malarial antibody responses has the potential to improve characterization of the variation in exposure to infection in low transmission settings, where conventional measures, such as entomolog...

    Authors: Henry Surendra, Mahardika A. Wijayanti, Elsa H. Murhandarwati, Irnawati, Titik Yuniarti, Mardiati, Herdiana, Maria E. Sumiwi, William A. Hawley, Neil F. Lobo, Jackie Cook, Chris Drakeley and Supargiyono

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:227

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  28. Content type: Research

    The wide distribution of malaria mosquito breeding sites within tropical environments limits the mosquito larval source management efforts to control malaria. Rice farming contributes substantially in supporti...

    Authors: Humphrey D. Mazigo, Leonard E. G. Mboera, Susan F. Rumisha and Eliningaya J. Kweka

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:226

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  29. Content type: Methodology

    Therapeutic efficacy studies in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are confounded by new infections, which constitute competing risk events since they can potentially preclude/pre-empt the detection of s...


    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:225

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  30. Content type: Research

    PermaNet® 3.0 is a deltamethrin-treated combination long-lasting insecticidal net with the addition of synergist piperonylbutoxide (PBO) on its roof section. It is designed to overcome the challenge posed by pyre...

    Authors: Abaynesh Birhanu, Abebe Asale and Delenasaw Yewhalaw

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:224

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  31. Content type: Research

    Brazil has considerably reduced the number of cases of malaria in recent years and aims to eradicate the disease completely, however, vivax malaria continues to be a major challenge for the health system. In t...

    Authors: Felipe Leão Gomes Murta, Maxwell Oliveira Mendes, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Abrahim Sena Baze Junior, Ximena Pamela Díaz-Bermúdez, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro and Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:223

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  32. Content type: Research

    The ability of malaria (Plasmodium) parasites to adjust investment into sexual transmission stages versus asexually replicating stages is well known, but plasticity in other traits underpinning the replication ra...

    Authors: Philip L. G. Birget, Kimberley F. Prior, Nicholas J. Savill, Lewis Steer and Sarah E. Reece

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:222

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  33. Content type: Research

    A mixed methods study was conducted to look at the magnitude of residual malaria transmission (RMT) and factors contributing to low (< 1% prevalence), but sustained transmission in rural communities on the Th...

    Authors: Hannah M. Edwards, Patchara Sriwichai, Kirakorn Kirabittir, Jetsumon Prachumsri, Irwin F. Chavez and Jeffrey Hii

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:221

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Malaria Journal 2019 18:248

  34. Content type: Research

    Zanzibar has maintained malaria prevalence below 1% for the past decade, yet elimination remains elusive despite high coverage of core vector control interventions. As part of a study investigating the magnitu...

    Authors: April Monroe, Kimberly Mihayo, Fredros Okumu, Marceline Finda, Sarah Moore, Hannah Koenker, Matthew Lynch, Khamis Haji, Faiza Abbas, Abdullah Ali, George Greer and Steven Harvey

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:220

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  35. Content type: Methodology

    Deep sequencing of targeted genomic regions is becoming a common tool for understanding the dynamics and complexity of Plasmodium infections, but its lower limit of detection is currently unknown. Here, a new amp...

    Authors: Angela M. Early, Rachel F. Daniels, Timothy M. Farrell, Jonna Grimsby, Sarah K. Volkman, Dyann F. Wirth, Bronwyn L. MacInnis and Daniel E. Neafsey

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:219

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  36. Content type: Research

    Malaria eradication globally is yet to be achieved and transmission is sustained in many endemic countries. Plasmodium falciparum continues to develop resistance to currently available anti-malarial drugs, posing...

    Authors: Titilope M. Dokunmu, Cynthia U. Adjekukor, Omolara F. Yakubu, Adetutu O. Bello, Jarat O. Adekoya, Olugbenga Akinola, Emmanuel O. Amoo and Abiodun H. Adebayo

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:218

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  37. Content type: Review

    The intensification of malaria control interventions has resulted in its global decline, but it remains a significant public health burden especially in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Knowledge on the parasite dive...

    Authors: Tobias O. Apinjoh, Amed Ouattara, Vincent P. K. Titanji, Abdoulaye Djimde and Alfred Amambua-Ngwa

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:217

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  38. Content type: Research

    Slash and burn cultivators are a significant risk group for malaria in South-East Asia. As envisaged in the National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination, Bangladesh aims to achieve zero indigenous malaria t...

    Authors: Avijit Saha, Malabika Sarker, Moktadir Kabir, Guangyu Lu and Olaf Müller

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:216

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  39. Content type: Methodology

    Reverse genetics approaches have become powerful tools to dissect the biology of malaria parasites. In a previous study, development of an in vitro drug selection method for generating transgenic parasite of Plas...

    Authors: Akira Soga, Takahiro Shirozu, Mami Ko-ketsu and Shinya Fukumoto

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:215

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  40. Content type: Research

    Undesirable consequences of donor Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia on stored donor blood have been reported. Therefore, it is imperative that all prospective blood donors are screened for P. falciparum infectio...

    Authors: Enoch Aninagyei, Stella Smith-Graham, Alex Boye, Alexander Egyir-Yawson and Desmond Omane Acheampong

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:214

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  41. Content type: Research

    Malaria represents a worldwide medical emergency affecting mainly poor areas. Plasmodium parasites during blood stages can release kinins to the extracellular space after internalization of host kininogen inside ...

    Authors: Priscilla D. S. Ventura, Carolina P. F. Carvalho, Nilana M. T. Barros, Leonardo Martins-Silva, Edilson O. Dantas, Carolina Martinez, Pollyana M. S. Melo, João B. Pesquero, Adriana K. Carmona, Marcia R. Nagaoka and Marcos L. Gazarini

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:213

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  42. Content type: Research

    In a previous study, severe and cerebral malaria have been connected with acute cochlear malfunction in children, demonstrated by a decrease of transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) reproducibility....

    Authors: Elisa Reiterer, Simon Reider, Peter Lackner, Natalie Fischer, Daniel Dejaco, Herbert Riechelmann, Patrick Zorowka, Peter G. Kremsner, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Erich Schmutzhard and Joachim Schmutzhard

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:212

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  43. Content type: Research

    Understanding the complex heterogeneity of risk factors that can contribute to an increased risk of malaria at the individual and household level will enable more effective use of control measures. The objecti...

    Authors: Walters M. Essendi, Anne M. Vardo-Zalik, Eugenia Lo, Maxwell G. Machani, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:211

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  44. Content type: Research

    There has been no local transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka for 6 years following elimination of the disease in 2012. Malaria vectors are prevalent in parts of the country, and imported malaria cases continue...

    Authors: Vissundara M. Karunasena, Manonath Marasinghe, Carmen Koo, Saliya Amarasinghe, Arundika S. Senaratne, Rasika Hasantha, Mihirini Hewavitharana, Hapuarachchige C. Hapuarachchi, Hema D. B. Herath, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Kamini N. Mendis, Deepika Fernando and Dewanee Ranaweera

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:210

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  45. Content type: Research

    To reduce onward falciparum malaria transmission, the World Health Organization recommends adding single low-dose (SLD) primaquine to artemisinin-based combination treatment in low transmission areas. However,...

    Authors: Jaishree Raman, Elizabeth Allen, Lesley Workman, Aaron Mabuza, Hendrik Swanepoel, Gillian Malatje, John Frean, Lubbe Wiesner and Karen I. Barnes

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:209

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  46. Content type: Research

    Malaria transmission varies in intensity amongst Solomon Island villages where Anopheles farauti is the only vector. This variation in transmission intensity might be explained by density-dependent processes duri...

    Authors: Kimberley McLaughlin, Tanya L. Russell, Allan Apairamo, Hugo Bugoro, Jance Oscar, Robert D. Cooper, Nigel W. Beebe, Scott A. Ritchie and Thomas R. Burkot

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:208

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  47. Content type: Research

    Recent reductions in malaria burden have been attributed largely to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). In March–June 2017, approximately 3 years after a national LLIN distribution campaign, a cross-sectio...

    Authors: Sheila Rugnao, Samuel Gonahasa, Catherine Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Jimmy Opigo, Adoke Yeka, Agaba Katureebe, Mary Kyohere, Amy Lynd, Janet Hemingway, Martin J. Donnelly, Grant Dorsey, Moses R. Kamya and Sarah G. Staedke

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:207

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  48. Content type: Research

    Routine surveillance on the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been ongoing in Ghana since 2005. The sixth round of surveillance was conducted between 2015 and 2017 to dete...

    Authors: Benjamin Abuaku, Nancy O. Duah-Quashie, Lydia Quaye, Sena A. Matrevi, Neils Quashie, Akosua Gyasi, Felicia Owusu-Antwi, Keziah Malm and Kwadwo Koram

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:206

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  49. Content type: Research

    Heterogeneity in the immune response to parasite infection is mediated in part by differences in host genetics, gender, and age group. In infants and young children, ongoing immunological maturation often resu...

    Authors: Paul L. Maurizio, Hubaida Fuseini, Gerald Tegha, Mina Hosseinipour and Kristina De Paris

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:205

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  50. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors flagged an error concerning Table 3.

    Authors: Abdou Talipouo, Carmene S. Ngadjeu, Patricia Doumbe-Belisse, Landre Djamouko-Djonkam, Nadege Sonhafouo-Chiana, Edmond Kopya, Roland Bamou, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Sylvain Woromogo, Sevilor Kekeunou, Charles S. Wondji and Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:204

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    The original article was published in Malaria Journal 2019 18:167

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