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  1. The complex life cycle of malaria parasites requires well-orchestrated stage specific gene expression. In the vertebrate host the parasites grow and multiply by schizogony in two different environments: within...

    Authors: Reto Caldelari, Sunil Dogga, Marc W. Schmid, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Chris J. Janse, Dominique Soldati-Favre and Volker Heussler

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:330

    Content type: Research

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  2. Distribution campaigns for insecticide-treated nets (ITN) have increased the use of ITNs in Malawi, but malaria prevalence remains high even among those using the nets. Previous studies have addressed ITN owne...

    Authors: Liana R. Andronescu, Andrea G. Buchwald, Jenna E. Coalson, Lauren Cohee, Andy Bauleni, Jenny A. Walldorf, Chifundo Kandangwe, Themba Mzilahowa, Terrie E. Taylor, Don P. Mathanga and Miriam K. Laufer

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:329

    Content type: Research

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  3. Duffy blood group antigens serve as receptors for Plasmodium vivax invasion into erythrocytes, and they are determined by polymorphisms of the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), also known as Fy glycop...

    Authors: Prabhanjan P. Gai, Welmoed van Loon, Konrad Siegert, Jakob Wedam, Suyamindra S. Kulkarni, Rashmi Rasalkar, Archith Boloor, Arun Kumar, Animesh Jain, Chakrapani Mahabala, Shantaram Baliga, Rajeshwari Devi, Damodara Shenoy, Pramod Gai and Frank P. Mockenhaupt

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:328

    Content type: Research

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  4. Different antigens are needed to characterize Plasmodium falciparum infection in terms of seroreactivity and targets for invasion inhibition, in order to guide and identify the proper use of such proteins as tool...

    Authors: Jorge Bendezu, Elizabeth Villasis, Sandra Morales Ruiz, Katherine Garro, Berónica Infante, Renzo Gutierrez-Loli, Pamela Rodríguez, Manolo Fernández-Díaz, Dionicia Gamboa and Katherine Torres

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:327

    Content type: Research

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  5. Poor knowledge on the afebrile Plasmodium falciparum biology limits elimination approaches to target asymptomatic malaria. Therefore, the association of parasite factors involved in cytoadhesion, parasite multipl...

    Authors: Himanshu Gupta, Beatriz Galatas, Gloria Matambisso, Lidia Nhamussua, Pau Cisteró, Quique Bassat, Aina Casellas, Eusébio Macete, John J. Aponte, Charfudin Sacoor, Pedro Alonso, Francisco Saúte, Caterina Guinovart, Pedro Aide and Alfredo Mayor

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:326

    Content type: Research

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  6. Activation of hypnozoites of vivax malaria causes multiple clinical relapses, which contribute to the Plasmodium vivax burden and continuing transmission. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is effective ...

    Authors: André Daher, Ghait Aljayyoussi, Dhelio Pereira, Marcus V. G. Lacerda, Márcia A. A. Alexandre, Cristiana T. Nascimento, Júlio Castro Alves, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Diego Medeiros Dias da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Danielle Fonseca Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Rios Silvino, Taís Nóbrega de Sousa, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Feiko O. ter Kuile and David G. Lalloo

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:325

    Content type: Research

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  7. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (TNGS) is an efficient and economical Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform and the preferred choice when specific genomic regions are of interest. So far, only institut...

    Authors: Anita Ghansah, Edwin Kamau, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Deus S. Ishengoma, Oumou Maiga-Ascofare, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Awa Deme, William Yavo, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Lynette Isabella Ochola-Oyier, Gideon Kofi Helegbe, Jeffery Bailey, Michael Alifrangis and Abdoulaye Djimde

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:324

    Content type: Meeting report

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  8. This paper outlines Zimbabwe’s potential readiness in harnessing integrated vector management (IVM) strategy for enhanced control of vector-borne diseases. The objective is to provide guidance for the country ...

    Authors: Shadreck Sande, Moses Zimba, David Nyasvisvo, Munyaradzi Mukuzunga, Emmanuel H. Kooma, Joseph Mberikunashe and Busisani Dube

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:322

    Content type: Opinion

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  9. Over the past decade, food insecurity, connected to erratic rains and reduced agricultural outputs, has plagued Malawi. Many households are turning to fishing to seek additional sources of income and food. The...

    Authors: Sara Berthe, Steven A. Harvey, Matthew Lynch, Hannah Koenker, Vincent Jumbe, Blessings Kaunda-Khangamwa and Don P. Mathanga

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:320

    Content type: Research

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  10. Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causative agent of malaria, has high prevalence in Nigeria. Drug resistance causing failure of previously effective drugs has compromised anti-malarial treatment. On this basi...

    Authors: Abel O. Idowu, Wellington A. Oyibo, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Manjeet Khubbar, Udoma E. Mendie, Violet V. Bumah, Carolyn Black, Joseph Igietseme and Anthony A. Azenabor

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:319

    Content type: Research

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  11. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria is recommended as policy for certain high-risk populations, but not currently for schoolchildren. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the eff...

    Authors: Andrea M. Rehman, Catherine Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Samuel Gonahasa, Jaffer Okiring, Simon P. Kigozi, Clare I. R. Chandler, Chris Drakeley, Grant Dorsey, Moses R. Kamya and Sarah G. Staedke

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:318

    Content type: Research

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  12. Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA-1) is a promising candidate antigen for a blood-stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation and diversity of PfAMA-1 are still major problems to desi...

    Authors: Ya-Nan Wang, Min Lin, Xue-Yan Liang, Jiang-Tao Chen, Dong-De Xie, Yu-Ling Wang, Carlos Salas Ehapo, Urbano Monsuy Eyi, Hui-Ying Huang, Jing-Li Wu, Dan-Yan Xu, Zhi-Mao Chen, Yi-Long Cao and Hai-Bin Chen

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:317

    Content type: Research

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  13. Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral mala...

    Authors: Maowia M. Mukhtar, Omer A. Eisawi, Seth A. Amanfo, Elwaleed M. Elamin, Zeinab S. Imam, Faiza M. Osman and Manasik E. Hamed

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:316

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Surveillance is a core component of an effective system to support malaria elimination. Poor surveillance data will prevent countries from monitoring progress towards elimination and targeting interventions to...

    Authors: Christopher Lourenço, Andrew J. Tatem, Peter M. Atkinson, Justin M. Cohen, Deepa Pindolia, Darlene Bhavnani and Arnaud Le Menach

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:315

    Content type: Research

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  15. Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interv...

    Authors: Emmanuel P. Mwanga, Arnold S. Mmbando, Paul C. Mrosso, Caleb Stica, Salum A. Mapua, Marceline F. Finda, Khamis Kifungo, Andrew Kafwenji, April C. Monroe, Sheila B. Ogoma, Halfan S. Ngowo and Fredros O. Okumu

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:314

    Content type: Research

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  16. Malaria continues to impose a tremendous burden in terms of global morbidity and mortality, yet even today, a large number of diagnoses are presumptive resulting in lack of or inappropriate treatment.

    Authors: Jinsu Kim, Xiangkun Elvis Cao, Julia L. Finkelstein, Washington B. Cárdenas, David Erickson and Saurabh Mehta

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:313

    Content type: Research

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  17. Anaemia is a major consequence of malaria, caused by the removal of both infected and uninfected red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation. Complement activation and reduced expression of complement regulato...

    Authors: Damian A. Oyong, Jessica R. Loughland, Arya SheelaNair, Dean Andrew, Fabian D. L. Rivera, Kim A. Piera, Timothy William, Matthew J. Grigg, Bridget E. Barber, Ashraful Haque, Christian R. Engwerda, James S. McCarthy, Nicholas M. Anstey and Michelle J. Boyle

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:312

    Content type: Research

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  18. Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and death in sub-Saharan Africa. Along with early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp...

    Authors: Peter Dambach, Till Baernighausen, Issouf Traoré, Saidou Ouedraogo, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn, Norbert Becker and Valérie R. Louis

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:311

    Content type: Research

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  19. After years of efforts on the control of malaria, it remains as a most deadly infectious disease. A major problem for the available anti-malarial drugs is the occurrence of drug resistance in Plasmodium. Developi...

    Authors: Saeed Yousefinejad, Marjan Mahboubifar and Rayhaneh Eskandari

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:310

    Content type: Research

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  20. Intensive malaria transmission along international borders is a significant impediment to malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Southeast Asia. Passive case detection (PCD) was used to s...

    Authors: Jinting Geng, Pallavi Malla, Jiaqi Zhang, Shiling Xu, Cuiying Li, Yan Zhao, Qinghui Wang, Myat Phone Kyaw, Yaming Cao, Zhaoqing Yang and Liwang Cui

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:309

    Content type: Research

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  21. Malaria is one of the important vector-borne diseases with high fatality rates in tropical countries. The pattern of emergence and spread of novel antigenic variants, leading to escape of vaccine-induced immun...

    Authors: Hargobinder Kaur, Rakesh Sehgal, Archit Kumar, Alka Sehgal, Praveen K. Bharti, Devendra Bansal, Pradyumna K. Mohapatra, Jagadish Mahanta and Ali A. Sultan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:308

    Content type: Research

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  22. While bed nets and insecticide spraying have had significant impact on malaria burden in many endemic regions, outdoor vector feeding and insecticide resistance may ultimately limit their contribution to elimi...

    Authors: Prashanth Selvaraj, Joshua Suresh, Edward A. Wenger, Caitlin A. Bever and Jaline Gerardin

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:307

    Content type: Research

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  23. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a threat to public health, but Plasmodium vivax malaria is most prevalent in Latin America, where the incidence rate has been increasing since 2016, particularly in Venezuela and ...

    Authors: Meyrecler Aglair de Oliveira Padilha, Janille de Oliveira Melo, Guilherme Romano, Marcos Vinicius Malveira de Lima, Wladimir J. Alonso, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum and Gabriel Zorello Laporta

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:306

    Content type: Research

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  24. Plasmodium species feature only four to eight nuclear ribosomal units on different chromosomes, which are assumed to evolve independently according to a birth-and-death model, in which new variants originate by d...

    Authors: Josef Harl, Tanja Himmel, Gediminas Valkiūnas and Herbert Weissenböck

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:305

    Content type: Research

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  25. Studies of the association between malaria in pregnancy (MiP) and malaria during infancy have provided mixed results. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate available evidence on the impact of Plasmodium f...

    Authors: Abel Kakuru, Sarah G. Staedke, Grant Dorsey, Stephen Rogerson and Daniel Chandramohan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:304

    Content type: Research

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  26. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are increasingly being used to address a diverse range of biological and epidemiological questions. The current understanding of malaria transmission dynamics and ...

    Authors: Sofonias K. Tessema, Jaishree Raman, Craig W. Duffy, Deus S. Ishengoma, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa and Bryan Greenhouse

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:268

    Content type: Review

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  27. Parasite resistance against anti-malarial drugs is a major threat to the ongoing malaria control and elimination strategies. This is especially true since resistance to the currently recommended artemisinins a...

    Authors: Deus S. Ishengoma, Queen Saidi, Carol H. Sibley, Cally Roper and Michael Alifrangis

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:267

    Content type: Opinion

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  28. Infection during pregnancy with Plasmodium falciparum is associated with maternal anaemia and adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW). Studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques indi...

    Authors: Holger W. Unger, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Leanne J. Robinson, Maria Ome-Kaius, Shadrach Jally, Alexandra J. Umbers, Willie Pomat, Ivo Mueller, Eline Kattenberg and Stephen J. Rogerson

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:302

    Content type: Research

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  29. Malaria is a huge global health burden due to its mortality, morbidity and cost to economies. It is necessary to eliminate the disease in all countries where possible to achieve the World Health Organization t...

    Authors: Mia Iyer, John Skelton, Giles de Wildt and Graziela Meza

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:301

    Content type: Research

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  30. The ability to report vaccine-induced IgG responses in terms of µg/mL, as opposed arbitrary units (AU), enables a more informed interpretation of the magnitude of the immune response, and better comparison bet...

    Authors: Geneviève M. Labbé, Kazutoyo Miura, Sarah E. Silk, Wenjuan Gu, James E. Moon, Jing Jin, Ruth O. Payne, Michael P. Fay, Sheetij Dutta, Carole A. Long and Simon J. Draper

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:300

    Content type: Research

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  31. Monitoring of malaria vectors is important for designing and maintaining effective control interventions as changes in vector-feeding habits can threaten the efficacy of interventions. At present, human landin...

    Authors: Bram van de Straat, Alexandra Hiscox, Willem Takken and Thomas R. Burkot

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:299

    Content type: Research

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  32. There is growing interest in the potential to modify houses to target mosquitoes with insecticides or repellents as they search for human hosts. One version of this ‘Lethal House Lure’ approach is the In2Care® Ea...

    Authors: Antoine M. G. Barreaux, Welbeck A. Oumbouke, Innocent Zran Tia, N’guessan Brou, Alphonsine A. Koffi, Raphaël N’guessan and Matthew B. Thomas

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:298

    Content type: Research

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  33. HIV infection is associated with more frequent and severe episodes of malaria and may be the result of altered malaria-specific B cell responses. However, it is poorly understood how HIV and the associated lym...

    Authors: Eliud O. Odhiambo, Dibyadyuti Datta, Bernard Guyah, George Ayodo, Bartholomew N. Ondigo, Benard O. Abong’o, Chandy C. John and Anne E. P. Frosch

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:297

    Content type: Research

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  34. Most malaria vector control programmes rely on indoor residual spraying of insecticides and insecticide-treated bed nets. This is effective against vector species that feed indoors at night and rest inside the...

    Authors: Staci M. Dreyer, Donovan Leiva, Marla Magaña, Marie Pott, Jonathan Kay, Alvaro Cruz, Nicole L. Achee, John P. Grieco and Jefferson A. Vaughan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:296

    Content type: Research

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  35. Competitive outcomes between co-infecting malaria parasite lines can reveal fitness disparities in blood stage growth. Blood stage fitness costs often accompany the evolution of drug resistance, with the expec...

    Authors: Abigail R. Tirrell, Katelyn M. Vendrely, Lisa A. Checkley, Sage Z. Davis, Marina McDew-White, Ian H. Cheeseman, Ashley M. Vaughan, François H. Nosten, Timothy J. C. Anderson and Michael T. Ferdig

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:295

    Content type: Research

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  36. Insecticides are still at the core of insect pest and vector control programmes. Several lines of evidence indicate that ABC transporters are involved in detoxification processes against insecticides, includin...

    Authors: Agata Negri, Marco Ferrari, Riccardo Nodari, Edoardo Coppa, Valentina Mastrantonio, Sergio Zanzani, Daniele Porretta, Claudio Bandi, Sandra Urbanelli and Sara Epis

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:294

    Content type: Research

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  37. Resistance to all available anti-malarial drugs has emerged and spread including artemisinin derivatives and their partner drugs. Several genes involved in artemisinin and partner drugs resistance, such as pfcrt,...

    Authors: Francis Tsombeng Foguim, Marie Gladys Robert, Mamadou Wagué Gueye, Mathieu Gendrot, Silman Diawara, Joel Mosnier, Rémy Amalvict, Nicolas Benoit, Raymond Bercion, Bécaye Fall, Marylin Madamet and Bruno Pradines

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:293

    Content type: Research

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  38. Malaria remains a very important public health problem in Ethiopia. Currently, only Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are considered in the malaria diagnostic and treatment policies. However, the existen...

    Authors: Sindew Mekasha Feleke, Bokretsion Gidey Brhane, Hassen Mamo, Ashenafi Assefa, Adugna Woyessa, Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa and Vitaliano Cama

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:292

    Content type: Research

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  39. The potential benefits of long-acting injectable chemoprotection (LAI-C) against malaria have been recently recognized, prompting a call for suitable candidate drugs to help meet this need. On the basis of its...

    Authors: Martin J. Smilkstein, Sovitj Pou, Alina Krollenbrock, Lisa A. Bleyle, Rozalia A. Dodean, Lisa Frueh, David J. Hinrichs, Yuexin Li, Thomas Martinson, Myrna Y. Munar, Rolf W. Winter, Igor Bruzual, Samantha Whiteside, Aaron Nilsen, Dennis R. Koop, Jane X. Kelly…

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:291

    Content type: Research

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  40. Plasmodium elongatum (cytochrome b lineage pGRW6) is a widespread avian malaria parasite, often causing severe disease in non-adapted hosts. This parasite lineage is of global distribution however, its virulence ...

    Authors: Mikas Ilgūnas, Vaidas Palinauskas, Elena Platonova, Tatjana Iezhova and Gediminas Valkiūnas

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:290

    Content type: Research

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  41. The Duffy glycoprotein acts as the entry point for merozoites of Plasmodium vivax in the invasion of red blood cells. The host–parasite relationship has revealed new perspectives regarding the association between...

    Authors: Rechfy K. Abou-Ali, Anamika Dhyani, Alexandre L. Terço, Diana M. Toro, Katiane S. Gomes, Lucianna C. Tezza, Monique A. Negreiros, Celiane S. Batista, Márcia K. S. Souza, Edalton C. B. Sanguino and Sérgio R. L. Albuquerque

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:289

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. The Gambia has successfully reduced malaria transmission. The human reservoir of infection could further decrease if malaria-infected individuals could be identified by highly sensitive, field-based, diagnosti...

    Authors: Julia Mwesigwa, Hannah Slater, John Bradley, Binta Saidy, Fatima Ceesay, Charles Whittaker, Ballah Kandeh, Davis Nkwakamna, Chris Drakeley, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Teun Bousema, Jane Achan and Umberto D’Alessandro

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:288

    Content type: Research

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  43. The human infectious reservoir for malaria consists of individuals capable of infecting mosquitoes. Oocyst prevalence and density are typical indicators of human infectivity to mosquitoes. However, identificat...

    Authors: Alex K. Musiime, Joseph Okoth, Melissa Conrad, Daniel Ayo, Ismail Onyige, John Rek, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Sarah G. Staedke, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema and Chiara Andolina

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:287

    Content type: Methodology

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  44. Strategies for combatting residual malaria by targeting vectors outdoors are gaining importance as the limitations of primary indoor interventions are reached. Strategies to target ovipositing females or her o...

    Authors: Joel O. Odero, Ulrike Fillinger, Emily J. Rippon, Daniel K. Masiga and David Weetman

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:286

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Mutations in the propeller domain of Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 (Pfk13) gene are associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. Artemisinin resistance is defined by increased ring survival rate and...

    Authors: Francis Foguim Tsombeng, Mathieu Gendrot, Marie Gladys Robert, Marylin Madamet and Bruno Pradines

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:285

    Content type: Opinion

    Published on:

  46. The MORDOR study, a cluster randomized clinical trial, showed that single-dose azithromycin (20 mg/kg) administered biannually for 2 years to preschool children reduced mortality; a study was conducted to dete...

    Authors: Evan M. Bloch, Beatriz Munoz, Zakayo Mrango, Jerusha Weaver, Leonard E. G. Mboera, Tom M. Lietman, David J. Sullivan Jr. and Sheila K. West

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:284

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. The Global Technical Strategy 2016–2030 of the World Health Organization (WHO) has the ambitious goal of malaria being eliminated from at least 35 countries by 2030. However, in areas with once-stable malaria ...

    Authors: Thomas P. Eisele

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:281

    Content type: Debate

    Published on:

    The Debate to this article has been published in Malaria Journal 2019 18:279

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