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  1. Evidence on peer educators’ experiences of implementing the school-based educational interventions on malaria prevention would be used as inputs for malaria eliminating efforts. This study explored the accepta...

    Authors: Fira Abamecha, Alemayehu Deressa, Morankar Sudhakar, Lakew Abebe, Yohannes Kebede, Dejene Tilahun, Firanbon Teshome and Zewdie Birhanu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:437
  2. The currently used malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is designed based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). The pfcsp gene, besides having different polymorphic patterns, can vary between P. falci...

    Authors: Nouh Saad Mohamed, Hanadi AbdElbagi, Ahad R. Elsadig, Abdalla Elssir Ahmed, Yassir Osman Mohammed, Lubna Taj Elssir, Mohammed-Ahmed B. Elnour, Yousif Ali, Mohamed S. Ali, Omnia Altahir, Mustafa Abubakr, Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Ayman Ahmed and Rihab Ali Omer
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:436
  3. Chronic and frequently recurring infectious diseases, such as malaria, are associated with expanded populations of atypical memory B cells (MBCs). These cells are different from classical MBCs by the lack of s...

    Authors: S. Jake Gonzales, Sebastiaan Bol, Ashley E. Braddom, Richard Sullivan, Raphael A. Reyes, Isaac Ssewanyana, Erica Eggers, Bryan Greenhouse and Evelien M. Bunnik
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:435
  4. The occurrence of artemisinin resistance (ART)-associated polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller (pfk13) gene before and after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in two r...

    Authors: Moses Ikegbunam, Johnson A. Ojo, Kossiwa Kokou, Ugonna Morikwe, Chukwuemeka Nworu, Chibuzo Uba, Charles Esimone, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan and Olusola Ojurongbe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:434
  5. Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are used as the vector control interventions in the fight against malaria. Measuring the actual amount of deposits of insecticides on bed n...

    Authors: Harparkash Kaur, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Teunis A. Eggelte, Guillermo A. García and Feliciano Monti
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:433
  6. Since 2005, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Madagascar. Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are the firs...

    Authors: Catherine M. Dentinger, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Antsa Rakotondrandriana, Arinomenjanahary Rakotoarisoa, Marie Ange Rason, Leah F. Moriarty, Laura C. Steinhardt, Laurent Kapesa, Jocelyn Razafindrakoto, Samaly S. Svigel, Naomi W. Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Eric S. Halsey and C. Arsène Ratsimbasoa
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:432
  7. Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite c...

    Authors: Cleber Matos de Morais, Kayo Henrique de Carvalho Monteiro, Jose Diego Brito-Sousa, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Patricia Takako Endo and Judith Kelner
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:431
  8. Plasmodium sporozoites are the highly motile forms of malaria-causing parasites that are transmitted by the mosquito to the vertebrate host. Sporozoites need to enter and cross several cellular and tissue barrier...

    Authors: Konrad Beyer, Simon Kracht, Jessica Kehrer, Mirko Singer, Dennis Klug and Friedrich Frischknecht
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:430
  9. Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among children under five years of age and places a huge economic burden on individuals and health systems. While this burde...

    Authors: Caroline Watts, Harrysone Atieli, Jason Alacapa, Ming-Chieh Lee, Guofa Zhou, Andrew Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Virginia Wiseman
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:429
  10. The changing global health landscape has highlighted the need for more proactive, efficient and transparent health policy-making. After more than 60 years of limited development, novel tools for vivax malaria ...

    Authors: Varunika Ruwanpura, Josselyn Neukom, Koen Peeters Grietens, Ric N. Price, Kamala Thriemer and Caroline A. Lynch
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:428
  11. Until recently, relatively little research has been done on how mosquitoes behave around the occupied bed net in the indoor environment. This has been partly remedied in the last few years through laboratory a...

    Authors: James F. Sutcliffe and Shaoman Yin
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:427
  12. Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite infection, increases as Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections decrease in Johor, Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the distribution o...

    Authors: Sandthya Pramasivan, Romano Ngui, Nantha Kumar Jeyaprakasam, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Van Lun Low, Norzihan Mohamed Hassan, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Ropiah Jaraee, Roslinda Abdul Rahman, Jenarun Jelip and Indra Vythilingam
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:426
  13. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the vast majority of (severe) clinical malaria cases in most African settings. Other Plasmodium species often go undiagnosed but may still have clinical consequences.

    Authors: Daniel Ayo, Bakar Odongo, Joseph Omara, Chiara Andolina, Ole Mulder, Sarah G. Staedke and Teun Bousema
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:425
  14. Asymptomatic malaria infections largely remain undetected and act as a reservoir for continuous transmission. The study assessed the prevalence of submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections and anaemia in ...

    Authors: Paul M. Hayuma, Christian W. Wang, Edwin Liheluka, Vito Baraka, Rashid A. Madebe, Daniel T. R. Minja, Gerald Misinzo, Michael Alifrangis and John P. A. Lusingu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:424
  15. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, thatch roofs are being replaced by metal roofs. Metal roofing, however, increases indoor temperatures above human comfort levels, and thus makes it more likely that residents will ...

    Authors: Majo Carrasco-Tenezaca, Ebrima Jatta, Musa Jawara, John Bradley, Margaret Pinder, Umberto D’Alessandro, Jakob Knudsen and Steve W. Lindsay
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:423
  16. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea can reduce mortality in children under five years (CU5) in resource-poor countries. There is growing interest in expanding malaria comm...

    Authors: Dean Sayre, Laura C. Steinhardt, Judickaelle Irinantenaina, Catherine Dentinger, Tsinjo Fehizoro Rasoanaivo, Laurent Kapesa, Jocelyn Razafindrakoto, Agathe Legrand, Nicole Prada, Julie Gutman, Lauren Lewis, Reziky Tiandraza Mangahasimbola, Mauricette Andriamananjara, Aimée Vololoniala Ravaoarinosy, Nicolas Ralemary, Andres Garchitorena…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:422
  17. The emergence and spread of malaria drug resistance have resulted in the need to understand disease mechanisms and importantly identify essential targets and potential drug candidates. Malaria infection involv...

    Authors: Francis E. Agamah, Delesa Damena, Michelle Skelton, Anita Ghansah, Gaston K. Mazandu and Emile R. Chimusa
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:421
  18. Health workers (HWs) appropriate malaria case management includes early detection and prompt treatment with appropriate anti-malarial drugs. Subsequently, HWs readiness and practice are considered authentic ev...

    Authors: Hosein Azizi, Reza Majdzadeh, Ayat Ahmadi, Elham Davtalab Esmaeili, Behrouz Naghili and Mohammad Ali Mansournia
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:420
  19. Malaria transmission is highly seasonal in Niger. Despite the introduction of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in the Magaria District, malaria incidence remains high, and the epidemiology of malaria in ...

    Authors: Matthew E. Coldiron, Bachir Assao, Ousmane Guindo, Nathan Sayinzoga-Makombe, Alena Koscalova, Esther Sterk, Michel Quere, Iza Ciglenecki, Ann Mumina, Salifou Atti, Céline Langendorf and Rebecca F. Grais
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:419
  20. The urban–rural designation has been an important risk factor in infectious disease epidemiology. Many studies rely on a politically determined dichotomization of rural versus urban spaces, which fails to capt...

    Authors: Peter S. Larson, Joseph N. S. Eisenberg, Veronica J. Berrocal, Don P. Mathanga and Mark L. Wilson
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:418
  21. Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often obser...

    Authors: Tanja Himmel, Josef Harl, Julia Matt and Herbert Weissenböck
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:417
  22. Although the association between malaria and anaemia is widely studied in patient cohorts, the population-representative causal effects of malaria on anaemia remain unknown. This study estimated the malaria-in...

    Authors: Tim Starck, Caroline A. Bulstra, Halidou Tinto, Toussaint Rouamba, Ali Sie, Thomas Jaenisch and Till Bärnighausen
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:416
  23. Supplementary tools are required to address the limitations of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), which are currently the core vector control methods against malaria in Africa....

    Authors: Emmanuel W. Kaindoa, Arnold S. Mmbando, Ruth Shirima, Emmanuel E. Hape and Fredros O. Okumu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:415
  24. Research on mosquito-microbe interactions may lead to new tools for mosquito and mosquito-borne disease control. To date, such research has largely utilized laboratory-reared mosquitoes that typically lack the...

    Authors: Nsa Dada, Ana Cristina Benedict, Francisco López, Juan C. Lol, Mili Sheth, Nicole Dzuris, Norma Padilla and Audrey Lenhart
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:414
  25. In cluster randomized trials (CRTs) or stepped wedge cluster randomized trials (SWCRTs) of malaria interventions, mosquito movement leads to contamination between trial arms unless buffer zones separate the cl...

    Authors: Lea Multerer, Fiona Vanobberghen, Tracy R. Glass, Alexandra Hiscox, Steven W. Lindsay, Willem Takken, Alfred Tiono and Thomas Smith
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:413
  26. Western Rajasthan in India has a typical desert climate. Until the introduction of the canal water irrigation system, malaria was an unstable and seasonal occurrence. Due to the scarcity of water, the communit...

    Authors: Himmat Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Kumar Vikram, Rekha Saxena and Amit Sharma
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:412
  27. Microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films is the gold standard in current guidelines for the diagnosis of malaria, but guidelines do not uniformly agree on which combination of other methods should...

    Authors: Marrit B. Boonstra, Rob Koelewijn, Eric A. T. Brienen, Welmoed Silvis, Foekje F. Stelma, Theo G. Mank, Bert Mulder, Lisette van Lieshout and Jaap J. van Hellemond
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:411
  28. The C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene is the most commonly observed variant in artemisinin-resistant isolates in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Until 2017, it had not been identified o...

    Authors: Naoko Yoshida, Masato Yamauchi, Ryosuke Morikawa, Francis Hombhanje and Toshihiro Mita
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:410
  29. Although malaria and Anopheles mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in Côte d’Ivoire, limited data are available to help understand the malaria vector density and transmission dynamics in areas bordering the cou...

    Authors: Firmain N. Yokoly, Julien B. Z. Zahouli, Graham Small, Allassane F. Ouattara, Millicent Opoku, Dziedzom K. de Souza and Benjamin G. Koudou
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:409
  30. Standard treatment for both uncomplicated and severe malaria is artemisinin derivatives. Delayed parasite clearance times preceded the appearance of artemisinin treatment failures in Southeast Asia. Most world...

    Authors: Alexuse M. Saidi, Geoffrey Guenther, Rima Izem, Xiaojun Chen, Karl Seydel and Douglas Postels
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:408
  31. Malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea continue to be the leading causes of death in children under the age of five years (U5) in Uganda. To combat these febrile illnesses, integrated community case management (iCCM...

    Authors: Patrick Lubogo, John Edward Lukyamuzi, Deo Kyambadde, Alex Aboda Komakech, Freddy Eric Kitutu and Edgar Mugema Mulogo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:407
  32. Pyrethroid resistance poses a major threat to the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Burkina Faso and throughout sub-Saharan Africa, particularly where resistance is present at high intensity. For ...

    Authors: Aristide S. Hien, Dieudonné D. Soma, Samina Maiga, Dramane Coulibaly, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Allison Belemvire, Mame B. Diouf, Djenam Jacob, Adama Koné, Ellen Dotson, Taiwo S. Awolola, Richard M. Oxborough and Roch K. Dabiré
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:406
  33. Despite the widespread use of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), purified native HRP2 antigen is not standardly used in research applications or assessment of RDTs used in the...

    Authors: Balwan Singh, Jessica N. McCaffery, Amy Kong, Yong Ah, Scott Wilson, Sayan Chatterjee, Deepak Tomar, Michael Aidoo, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar and Eric Rogier
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:405
  34. Progress in the fight against malaria has stalled in recent years, highlighting the importance of new interventions and tailored approaches. A critical factor that must be considered across contexts and interv...

    Authors: April Monroe, Sarah Moore, Bolanle Olapeju, Alice Payne Merritt and Fredros Okumu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:404
  35. In 2018, the National Malaria Control Programme in Vietnam switched from prioritizing malaria control to elimination. However, with the ongoing elimination programme, there are still areas where residual malar...

    Authors: Thai Quang Nguyen, Manh Duc Nguyen, Vinh Xuan Pham, Huan Mah Ro, Michael D. Edstein, Weng K. Chow, Nicholas J. Martin, Jeffrey C. Hertz and Maysa T. Motoki
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:403
  36. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a comprehensive treatment protocol of anti-malarial drugs administered to pregnant women to prevent malaria, started at the fourth pregnancy ...

    Authors: Issa Doumbia, Fomba Seydou, Koné Diakalia and Issam Bennis
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:402
  37. Despite the growing evidence that malaria and anaemia are two interlinked health problems of school-aged children (SAC) in developing countries, there is scarce information about malaria among SAC in Ethiopia....

    Authors: Zerihun Zerdo, Hilde Bastiaens, Sibyl Anthierens, Fekadu Massebo, Matewos Masne, Gelila Biresaw, Misgun Shewangizaw, Abayneh Tunje, Yilma Chisha, Tsegaye Yohannes and Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:400
  38. Due to the threat of emerging anti-malarial resistance, the World Health Organization recommends incorporating surveillance for molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance into routine therapeutic efficacy s...

    Authors: Arlindo Chidimatembue, Samaly S. Svigel, Alfredo Mayor, Pedro Aíde, Abel Nhama, Lídia Nhamussua, Arsénio Nhacolo, Quique Bassat, Crizólgo Salvador, Sónia Enosse, Abuchahama Saifodine, Eva De Carvalho, Baltazar Candrinho, Rose Zulliger, Ira Goldman, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:398
  39. In rural Burkina Faso, the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) primarily feeds indoors at night. Identification of factors which influence mosquito house entry could lead to development of ...

    Authors: Jean Baptiste Yaro, Alfred B. Tiono, Antoine Sanou, Hyacinthe K. Toe, John Bradley, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Z. Amidou Ouedraogo, Moussa W. Guelbeogo, Efundem Agboraw, Eve Worrall, N.’Fale Sagnon, Steven W. Lindsay and Anne L. Wilson
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:397
  40. Eliminating malaria and preventing re-establishment of malaria transmission in border areas requires universal coverage of malaria surveillance and a rapid response to any threats (i.e. malaria cues) of re-est...

    Authors: Jian-Wei Xu, Zu-Rui Lin, Yao-Wu Zhou, Rogan Lee, Hai-Mo Shen, Xiao-Dong Sun, Qi-Yan Chen, Kai-Xia Duan, Peng Tian, Chun-Li Ding, Shi-Yan Xu, Hui Liu and Hong-Ning Zhou
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:396
  41. Innovative tools are needed to complement the existing approach for malaria elimination. Gene drive mosquitoes are one potential new technology in the control of malaria vectors. Target Malaria is one of the r...

    Authors: Lea Pare Toe, Nourou Barry, Anselme D. Ky, Souleymane Kekele, Wilfrid Meda, Korotimi Bayala, Mouhamed Drabo, Delphine Thizy and Abdoulaye Diabate
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:395
  42. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are commonly used for the diagnosis of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, false negative results of RDT caused by genetic variation of P. falciparum histidine-rich prot...

    Authors: Gezahegn Solomon Alemayehu, Alebachew Messele, Kayla Blackburn, Karen Lopez, Eugenia Lo, Daniel Janies and Lemu Golassa
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:394
  43. Due to the effect of synthetic and commercial insecticides on non-target organisms and the resistance of mosquitoes, non-chemical and environmentally friendly methods have become prevalent in recent years. The...

    Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi, Tahereh Sadat Asgarian, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat and Saeedeh Javar
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:393
  44. Primaquine is a gametocytocidal drug recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in a single-low dose combined with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment and prevention of Plasmodiu...

    Authors: Dominic Mosha, Mwaka A. Kakolwa, Muhidin K. Mahende, Honorati Masanja, Salim Abdulla, Chris Drakeley, Roland Gosling and Joyce Wamoyi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:392
  45. Plasmodium 18S rRNA is a sensitive biomarker for detecting Plasmodium infection in human blood. Dried blood spots (DBS) are a practical sample type for malaria field studies to collect, store, and transport large...

    Authors: Ming Chang, Selena Johnston, Annette M. Seilie, Dianna Hergott and Sean C. Murphy
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:391
  46. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Mozambique since 2006, with artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and amodiaquine–artesunate (AS–AQ...

    Authors: Abel Nhama, Lídia Nhamússua, Eusébio Macete, Quique Bassat, Crizolgo Salvador, Sónia Enosse, Baltazar Candrinho, Eva Carvalho, Arsénio Nhacolo, Arlindo Chidimatembue, Abuchahama Saifodine, Rose Zulliger, Naomi Lucchi, Samaly S. Svigel, Leah F. Moriarty, Eric S. Halsey…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:390
  47. Malaria remains a major public health concern in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and school-age children are relatively neglected in malaria prevalence surveys and may constitute a significant reservoi...

    Authors: Sabin S. Nundu, Richard Culleton, Shirley V. Simpson, Hiroaki Arima, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Toshihiro Mita, Steve Ahuka and Taro Yamamoto
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:389
  48. Female mosquitoes serve as vectors for a host of illnesses, including malaria, spread by the Plasmodium parasite. Despite monumental strides to reduce this disease burden through tools such as bed nets, the rate ...

    Authors: Beverly I. Anaele, Karan Varshney, Francis S. O. Ugwu and Rosemary Frasso
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:388

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